Which of the following option is the mechanism for induction of immune tolerance

A murine CTLA4/Fc gamma2a heavy chain (mCTLA4-Fc) chimeric fusion molecule was used in B6AF1 recipients of BALB/c pancreatic islet allografts to study the induction and maintenance of tolerance following inhibition of the CD28-B7 pathway for T cell activation. Donor-specific tolerance was achieved b immune response without damaging the host. Activation (immunity) Suppression (tolerance) autoimmunity immunodeficiency Significance: The induction of tolerance may be exploited to prevent graft rejection, to treat autoimmune and allergic diseases, and to prevent immune responses in gene therapy So, we can say that autoimmunity is the breakdown of mechanisms responsible for self tolerance and induction of an immune response against components of self Molecular mechanism of anergy induction in T lymphocytes Stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) along with costimulatory receptors of a T lymphocyte triggers balanced activation of all the T-cell 's signalling pathways (full T-cell stimulation)

exist even in healthy individuals. The immune system has various mechanisms to suppress the immune response to the self, and the distur-bance of these mechanisms results in auto-immune diseases. Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases The conventional clonal deletion theory Mechanisms of Autoimmunity — Recent concept— JMAJ 47(9): 403-406, 200 The mechanisms of immune tolerance by dendritic cells (DCs) will provide stimulatory signals to either induce T cell anergy, maintaining T cells in their inactive state; or regulatory T cells..

Distinct mechanisms for the induction and maintenance of

  1. istration of regular doses of factor VIII, with the aim of re-educating th
  2. Cell-based therapies have been studied extensively in the context of transplantation tolerance induction. The most successful protocols have relied on transfusion of bone marrow prior to the transplantation of a renal allograft. However, it is not clear that stem cells found in bone marrow are required in order to render a transplant candidate immunologically tolerant
  3. Transgenic animal models demonstrate that central mechanisms are indispensable for induction of self-tolerance CD4 - CD8 - (double negative) T-cell progenitors enter the thymic cortex and rearrange their receptors to become CD4+CD8+ (double positive) thymocytes Positive and negative selection occurs in the thymus (Figure 1) Figure 1

Clonal anergy - Wikipedi

Inducing immune tolerance with dendritic cell-targeting

  1. ating all the mature hematopoietic cells followed by immune reconstitution with autologous hematopoietic stem cell precursors
  2. Peripheral tolerance comprises mechanisms to prevent immune responses among mature lymphocytes in the peripheral tissues. One major mechanism of T cell and B cell peripheral tolerance is anergy, in which the cells cannot be fully activated by encounter with the antigens that their receptors recognize
  3. antly Tr1 cells
  4. Immune Tolerance Induction (ITI) Therapy: The goal of ITI therapy is to stop the inhibitor from blocking factor in the blood and to teach the body to accept factor as a normal part of blood. With ITI therapy, people receive large amounts of factor every day for many weeks or months
  5. g cells serves to regulate the immune response to repeated injections of antigen. PMCID: PMC2137995 PMID: 14278224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Animals; Animals, Newborn.

Peripheral DCs are inducers of immune responses, but are also crucial regulators of tolerance induction and maintenance. Tolerogenic DCs present antigen to antigen-specific T cells, but fail to deliver adequate costimulatory signals (or deliver net coinhibitory signals) for T-cell activation and proliferation ( Gallucci et al. 1999 ) Coppola A, Margaglione M, Santagostino E, Rocino A, Grandone E, Mannucci PM, et al. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutations as predictors of outcome in immune tolerance induction of hemophilia A patients. Induction of CD4+ T-Cell Tolerance Using tNPs. PLGA tNPs containing rapamycin and chicken ovalbumin (OVA) or rapamycin and the MHC class II-restricted OVA peptide 323-339 (OVA 323-339) were prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion process (Fig. 1A).To investigate whether tNPs could inhibit CD4+ T-cell activation, T cells specific for the OVA 323-339 peptide (OTII T cells. The regulation of the interaction between the immune system and antigens, which may lead to the induction of immune tolerance, is critical both under physiologic conditions and in different pathological settings. In the past few years, major strides have been made in our understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of this process

Background: Helicobacter pylori infection leads to regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction in infected mice, which contributes to H. pylori immune escape. However, the mechanisms responsible for H. pylori induction of Treg and immune tolerance remain unclear. We hypothesized DC-produced TGF-β may be responsible for Treg induction and immune tolerance Immune tolerance can be induced in an antigen (Ag)-specific manner and suppress autoimmunity without the use of broad-based immunosuppressive agents. Tolerance can be achieved by inducing or targeting tolerogenic dendritic cells, modulation of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules on autoreactive T cells and induction and/or expansion o T cells [3, 4]. Later, specific celldeath, or - deletion, became the first described mechanism of immune tolerance by demonstrating negative selection of B-cells [5, 6] and T-cells [7]. This was closely followed by a second mechanism in which tolerance was maintained in the periphery by the induction of cellular non- Enzyme replacement therapy with laronidase is an established treatment for Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), but its efficacy may be limited by the development of anti-drug antibodies, which inhibit cellular uptake of the enzyme. In a related disorder, infantile Pompe disease, immune tolerance induction with low-dose, short-course methotrexate appears to reduce antibody formation Immune tolerance is a state of nonresponsiveness (or ignorance) to one or more antigens achieved through a variety of innate or acquired immunological processes. Pharmacologically, induction of tolerance to specific antigens seeks to overcome the need to generate broad immunosuppression as a way to counter pathogenic autoreactivity

1. Central tolerance: A. is the first step of tolerance mechanisms. B. affects both T cells and B cells. C. deletes cells that are autoreactive. D. occurs in the bone marrow and thymus. E. All of the above As a result, immune responses in the lungs need to be tightly regulated to prevent a hypersensitive response leading to inflammation. Exposure of antigens to the lung often leads to induction of tolerance rather than immunisation, therefore, the lung may not be the most obvious site for induction of mucosal immunity These innate mechanisms alone do not appear sufficient to lead to graft rejection itself. However, they are important for optimal adaptive immune responses to the graft and may play a major role in resistance to tolerance induction. The development of methods to blunt innate immune responses, which has potential implications for a wide variety. The challenge posed by immune system diversity; Tolerance induction with monoclonal antibodies (1) Tolerance induction with monoclonal antibodies (2) Proving tolerance induction (1) Proving tolerance induction (2) The mechanism of tolerance induction (1) The mechanism of tolerance induction (2) Dominant tolerance displays linked suppression (1 Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyzes the initial and rate‑limiting step in the degradation pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan and is expressed by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), epithelial cells, vascular endothelium and tumor cells. IDO‑mediated catabolic products, which are additionally termed ʻkynureninesʼ, exerts important immunosuppressive functions.

In addition to the expected anti-viral immune clearance, the danger signal created by virus-infected cells can generate immune co-stimulation known to override immune suppression and reverse tolerance within the tumor microenvironment. Our recent findings indicate that immune activation augments the clinical outcomes of oncolytic virotherapy The immune tolerance to allergens in asthmatic patients is due to the activation and proliferation of Th cells . Therefore, mechanisms underlying immune tolerance defects may be important for the pathogenesis of allergy-induced asthma. Knockdown of CCR7 in DCs caused the cells to remain in an immature state, promoting immune tolerance The mechanisms of adaptive T-regulatory (Treg) cell induction are not well known, and may include both regulatory cytokines and intracellular signaling (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein [CTLA-4], programmed cell death protein 1 [PD1], etc.). 18 Adaptive Treg induction is associated with sustained tolerance and probably requires the.

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the basic principles of oral tolerance induction to protein antigens (Ags). Single or multiple feeds will induce systemic tolerance and, in some cases, a mucosal immune response. This response may be favoured particularly if Ag gains access via the Peyer's patches (PP) life of FVIII are restored. However, up to now, the exact mechanism of immune tolerance induction remains unclear. Immune tolerance induction has been shown to induce tolerance in most patients who develop neutralising factor VIII antibodies nevertheless, different treatment protocols and co-medication options are used To elude immune surveillance, tumors must develop mechanisms that block the elaboration and sensing of proinflammatory danger signals, thereby shifting the balance from activation to tolerance induction. Elucidation of these mechanisms provides new strategies for cancer immunotherapy Induction of tolerance mechanisms, such as those due to HLA-G and TReg , have been proved to play a critical role in this tolerance. Chimerism. Chimerism is the process by which some cells are exchanged between two organisms and maintained in at least one of them, even though they are foreign to the host Michele M. Kosiewicz, Pascale Alard, Shuang Liang, Sherry L Clark, Mechanisms of tolerance induced by transforming growth factor‐β‐treated antigen‐presenting cells: CD8 regulatory T cells inhibit the effector phase of the immune response in primed mice through a mechanism involving Fas ligand, International Immunology, Volume 16, Issue 5.

Kupffer cells (KCs), resident macrophages of hepatic sinusoids, show multiple immunosuppressive mechanisms that predispose the liver to immune tolerance. Thus, during induction of LT tolerance, KCs can be recovered from the liver that express high levels of Fas ligand (FasL; CD95L) and will kill CD8 + T cells that recognize them; and the. Part 4: Introduction to Inhibitors explains the immune response and inhibitor development, signs/symptoms and risk factors of inhibitors, the impact of inhibitors on persons with hemophilia, inhibitor treatment strategies and challenges, and the positive health outcomes of immune tolerance induction therapy Access Options. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. relevance of the microbiome for immune tolerance induction and control, (3) environmental, infectious and microbial substances such as PAMPs, their interaction with PRRs and their signal transduction pathways participating in immune tolerance.

Tolerance and Cancer: Mechanisms of Tumor Evasion and

A Biodegradable Nanoparticle Platform for the Induction of

Background. Sertoli cells are usually co-transplanted with pancreatic islets to induce local immune tolerance.In this report, we used infusion with Sertoli cells in islet transplantation to induce systemic immune tolerance and studied the mechanism of the tolerance induction.. Methods. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups before islet transplantation: group A as. Combining immune suppression with induction of immune tolerance simultaneously might be undesirable, since tolerance induction requires active immunisation. Given the active role of β cells in dialogue with the immune system, it might be attractive to combine immune modulators with drugs relieving β cells of their stress (eg, glucagon-like. The mechanism of tolerance appeared to be induction of regulatory B cells rather than cell depletion, confirmed by increased numbers of IL-10 and TGF-β secreting B cells, and adoptive transfer of tolerance from methotrexate-tolerized mice to naïve hosts via splenic B cells Unfortunately, the overall reported success of immune tolerance induction in FIX deficiency with inhibitors is approximately 25-40%. We report the case of a 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B severe FIX deficiency (<1%), inhibitor antibodies to FIX development, and a history of adverse reactions to FIX infusions, who underwent a successful. Substantial progress in understanding mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumors, organ transplantation and chronic infections has led to a variety of targeted therapeutic approaches. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been used for 100 years as a desensitizing therapy for allergic diseases and represents the potentially curative and specific way of.

Strategies for Deliberate Induction of Immune Tolerance in

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. Thomas, Liji. (2020, May 22). Advances in Treatment for Autoimmune Diseases lloantigen-specific tolerance. In this study, we elucidated the role of LSECs in the tolerance induction of blood group antigen-reactive B cells after ABO-incompatible LT using mice that lack galactose-α(1,3)galactose (Gal) epitopes resembling blood group carbohydrate antigens. Methods Using adoptive transfer of LSECs from wild type (WT) C57BL/6J mice to congenic α1,3-galactosyltransferase. the following statement: Data on Immune Tolerance Induction (ITI) have been collected in patients with haemophilia A who have developed inhibitors to FVIII. This may be followed by a short description of the number of patients studied, how the data were obtained (e.g. clinical study, registry data), and whether the dat

Frontiers Transplantation Tolerance Induction: Cell

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/SD) and its clinical variants have at their core the loss of immune tolerance to aquaporin-4 and perhaps other autoantigens. The characteristic phenotype is disruption of astrocyte function and demyelination of spinal cord, optic nerves, and particular brain regions. In this second of a 2-part article, we present further perspectives regarding the. Current treatment options for many autoimmune conditions rely on systemic immune suppression, putting individuals with autoimmunity at increased risk of infection. Thus, there is a need for strategies to deplete only pathogenic, disease-inducing immune cells while leaving the rest of the immune system intact. In this study, Chen et al . generated microparticles that induced pathogenic T cell. The development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) involves a complex interaction between pancreatic β-cells and immune cells. β-cells may play a critical role in orchestrating this communication. Our lab is interested in determining the molecular mechanisms by which β-cell ER stress impacts this crosstalk in development of T1D

The following is the first of a 2-part description of several key immune mechanisms in NMO/SD that might be amenable to therapeutic restoration of immune tolerance. It is intended to provide a roadmap for how potential immune tolerance restorative techniques might be applied to patients with NMO/SD 22 other mechanisms.8,5658 In addition to direct tolerization of transgene product specific CD4+ T cells by induction of non responsiveness ( anergy) or deletion, B and T cell responses (including CTL responses) are actively suppressed by induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) with an immune suppressive phenotype.8 Antibodymediated. Mechanism of tolerance induction Clonal deletion: Functionally immature cells of a clone encountering antigen undergo a programmed cell death, as auto-reactive T-cells are eliminated in the thymus following interaction with self antigen during their differentiation (negative selection). Mechanism of tolerance induction. Clonal deletion As a result, patients with mutations in either factor VIII or IX, are born with a bleeding disorder called hemophilia. In the case of factor VIII deficiency, which is the more common form of the two diseases, the disease is called hemophilia A. Because both genes are X-linked, it is boys that are born with the disease, whereas females are carriers. The incidence of hemophilia worldwide is.

Mechanisms of Autoimmunity. Immunology Unit Department of Pathology College of Medicine Objectives. Autoimmunity results from activation of immune response against self antigens. To learn how immunological tolerance (central and peripheral) is induced against self antigens for maintaining normal health. To gain understanding of various factors contributing to the breakdown of immunological. The underlying mechanism for tolerance induction, based on creating a mixed-chimeric host, comprises thymic deletion of potentially donor-specific alloreactive T cells [40]. At the same time, nonthymic peripheral mechanisms, such as blocking costimulatory T cell activation, may facilitate the process of donor bone-marrow or stem cell. The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating the invading pathogens; however, the host organism can also protect itself from infectious diseases by reducing the negative impact of infections on host fitness. This ability to tolerate a pathogen's presence is a distinct host defense strategy, which has been largely overlooked in animal and human studies

Autoimmune diseases are those in which the body is attacked by its own specific adaptive immune response. In normal, healthy states, the immune system induces tolerance, which is a lack of an anti-self immune response. However, with autoimmunity, there is a loss of immune tolerance, and the mechanisms responsible for autoimmune diseases include. tolerance to cytotoxic cells, inhibiting the influx of NK cells. Soluble mediators either released by tumor cells or cells of the tumor stroma induce immune tolerance, examples including tryptophan and indolamine dioxygenases, arginine and adenosine. Treatment options to counteract these molecules are currently being tested. The tumo

1.2 Multiple Choice: Which of the following is an appropriate definition for immunological memory? A. The mechanism by which an organism prevents the development of an immune response against the host's own tissues B. The mechanism by which an organism prevents exposure to microbes C. The persistence of pathogen-specific antibodies an Mechanisms of immune tolerance after HSCT using global approaches. Project managers: Gérard SOCIÉ, David, David MICHONNEAU With the aim of better understanding GVHD physiopathology, we investigate various parameters potentially involved in GVHD versus operational immune tolerance, using deep phenotyping, metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches ADVERTISEMENTS: Five major ways through which self-tolerance can be lost in human immune system are: 1. breakdown of central tolerance, 2. breakdown of peripheral tolerance, 3. release of sequestrated antigens into circulation, 4. infection and molecular mimicry and 5. genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. The phenomenon of immunological non-reactivity against self-antigens is known. BAFF levels were elevated in pediatric and adult HA inhibitor patients and decreased to levels similar to those of noninhibitor controls after successful immune tolerance induction (ITI). Moreover, elevations in BAFF levels were seen in patients who failed to achieve FVIII tolerance with anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion

Therefore, when you have proper immune tolerance, your body defense mechanisms protect you from chemical reactivity, food reactivity and autoimmune reactivity. Immune tolerance includes oral tolerance. This process allows your body to tolerate commonly consumed foods. When you lose immune tolerance, food sensitivities can develop The knowledge on the immune components and parasite molecules involved in controlling the immune response would be useful for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of Treg induction. Finally, the use of parasite molecules to induce Tregs in vivo may provide a new alternative to control inflammation in other diseases The successful induction of immune tolerance is a major therapeutic goal for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases, including asthma and allergic diseases; autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes; and immune-mediated rejection of transplanted solid organs, tissues, and cells

hemophilia A mice. Depleting CD4 +CD25 + cells in vivo completely abrogated tolerance. Furthermore, cytokine production by splenocytes from tolerant mice were shifted toward a Th1 response. Anti-CD3 therefore represents one of the most efficacious pre-clinical therapies for FVIII tolerance induction The introduction of antigens into the anterior chamber (AC) of the eye, an immune-privileged site, induces immune responses that effectively eliminate ocular pathogens while minimizing tissue damage that can cause blindness. This specialized immune response, termed AC associated immune deviation (ACAID) is thought to be an evolutionary compromise to preserve the delicate microanatomy of the. There is numerous evidence for the efficacy of curcumin on the treatment of infectious disease particularly tuberculosis infection. According to review of the literature, curcumin could be considered as a therapeutic option against tuberculosis; but given that immunemodulatory of curcumin in immune-response and limitation of data about the main mechanism of curcumin during tuberculosis. To examine the change in immune parameters associated with peanut SLIT and the development of clinical tolerance. Through this objective, the investigators will seek to understand the molecular processes by which SLIT affects the immune system through evaluation of immune mechanisms in relationship to clinical findings of desensitization and tolerance

Central & Peripheral Tolerance Immunopaedi

Abstract. Nick D. Jones', Nick C muck', . Dave L. Roelen', Andrew L. Mello8, Peter J. Morris' and Kathryn J. Wood' Deletion of alloantigen-reactive thymocytes as a mechanism of adult tolerance induction following intrathymic antigen administration Direct injection of foreign antigen into the adult thymus is a potent route of antigen delivery for the induction of tolerance in viva In this. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), initially thought to be immune privileged cells, are now known to be susceptible to immune recognition. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been proposed as a potential source of autologous stem cells for therapy, but even these autologous stem cells may be targets of immune rejection. With clinical trials on the horizon, it is imperative that. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract associated with an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the most widely known types of IBD and have been the focus of attention due to their increasing incidence. Recent studies have pointed out genes associated with IBD susceptibility. Successful immune tolerance induction to enzyme replacement therapy in CRIM-negative infantile Pompe disease. is an option for tolerance induction of CRIM-negative Pompe to ERT when instituted in the naïve setting or following antibody development. It should be considered in other conditions in which antibody response to the therapeutic.

ABiodegradableNanoparticlePlatform ARTICLE for the

The plan is to share data in upon completion of the study in: 1.)ImmPort, a long-term archive of clinical and mechanistic data from DAIT-funded grants and contracts; and 2.)TrialShare, a clinical trials research portal developed by the Immune Tolerance Network that makes data from the consortium's clinical trials publicly available Monocytes bridge innate and adaptive immune responses and can affect the tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms that induce immune tolerance, angiogenesis, and increased dissemination of tumor cells. Yet monocytes can also give rise to antitumor effectors and activate antigen-presenting cells

Successful immune tolerance induction by FVIII in

This is referred to as the cancer‐immunity cycle (Figure 1). 14 Cancer immunity is a self‐propagating cyclic process that may lead to either of the following: (1) accumulation of immune‐stimulatory factors that may amplify and broaden T cell responses, or (2) accumulation of immune‐inhibitory factors that may diminish or halt the. The skin is a highly active immune organ capable of inducing effector cells 10 and protective immunity and immune tolerance. 11-15 Epicutaneous immunotherapy delivering antigen with Viaskin patches suppresses food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis in mice by Treg-dependent mechanisms. 16,17 Epicutaneous tolerance induction (ET) to haptens. In animals, this protein induced a long-term response following a short treatment duration through the promotion of regulatory T cells activating an immune tolerance induction mechanism. We also. Transplantation tolerance can be achieved through several mechanisms, including the action of suppressor cells, the induction of anergy or the deletion of graft-reactive donor T cells. Apoptosis may also represent a mechanism of induction of transplantation tolerance activate the immune system. Their early protective ef!cacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-speci!c anti-bodies (Box 2.1). However, there is more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-induced antibody titers. The quality of such antibodies (e.g., thei

Inhibitors in hemophilia: Mechanisms, prevalence

However, data are controversial and mechanisms unclear. Here we will present and discuss experimental data indicating that breastfeeding-induced protection may rely on immune tolerance induction in the breastfed child upon antigen transfer through maternal milk Immune tolerance in hemophilia can be modulated by B cell activating factor. immune tolerance induction (ITI) options are scarce, costly and invasive. New study reveals mechanisms that. There are two main processes that play a key role in the establishment of the immune system's tolerance to self‐antigens: central and peripheral tolerance. The induction of central tolerance takes place in the thymus, where medullary thymic epithelia cells (mTECs) and medullary DCs present a broad array of self‐peptides in association with. understanding tolerance induction by Tregitopes. The data indicate that Tregitopes induce tolerance by: Activating Treg populations. Shifting cytokine production from pro-inflammatory (IFNg) to tolerogenic (IL-10). Modulating APC phenotypes. •This suggests role for Tregitopes in IVIG mechanism of action

mRNA vaccines take on immune tolerance Nature Biotechnolog

Comprehensive mapping of immune tolerance yields a regulatory TNF receptor 2 signature in a murine model of successful Fel d 1‐specific immunotherapy using high‐dose CpG adjuvant. Allergy. recognize the self-antigen or by induction of a state of anergy. A failure of these mechanisms can trigger an aberrant immune response against self-antigens, and the development of autoimmune disease. Immunological tolerance can be induced during T cell development in the thymus (central tolerance) or in maturated T cells in the periphery.

JCI - Mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens: role of

Peripheral tolerance is mediated through a variety of mechanisms, including regulatory T cells (Treg), T-cell anergy, cell-extrinsic tolerogenic signals, and peripheral clonal deletion. The immune system exerts a strong selective pressure throughout tumor progression, leading to immune tumor editing ( 4 ) As shown in Fig. 7, the immune regulation in this case includes T cell populations with distinct immunosuppressive mechanisms (CD4 + /CD25 +) through the induction of HO‐1 and subsequently, CO through IL‐10 production and through increased activation of latent‐to‐active TGF‐β via nitrosation [223, 226]. In this manner, NO can be.

In this review we focus on Ag-specific tolerance induction in general and develop T1D as a case study for Ag-driven (auto-) immune diseases, to introduce Ag-specific tolerance restoration by oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) bacteria. This innovative Ag-specific strategy for oral tolerance induction could open up. Findings show the role of the SIRPα/CD47 axis in the maintenance of acquired immune tolerance. Highlights the differentiated mechanism of action of OSE's innovative myeloid checkpoint inhibitor. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of innate immune cells that regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In recent years, MDSCs were shown to play an important negative regulatory role in transplant immunology even upstream of regulatory T cells. In certain cases, MDSCs are closely involved in transplantation immune tolerance induction and maintenance

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