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Nominal and Real Exchange Rates - Quickonomic

The real exchange rate is closely related to the nominal exchange rate because the prices of the relevant goods and services must always be converted to the same currency before they can be compared. Therefore, we can use the following formula to calculate the real exchange rate The nominal exchange rate (NER) is the relative price of currencies of two countries. For example, if the exchange rate is £ 1 = $ 2, then a British can exchange one pound for two dollars in the world market. Similarly, an American can exchange two dollars to get one pound. The Real Exchange Rate

Nominal and Real Exchange Rates of an Open Economy (With

  1. al exchange rate is essentially the relative prices between two currencies. For example, if an exchange rate is listed as 1 euro = 1.10 USD, then one euro can be exchanged on the currency exchange market for 1.1 U.S dollars. It is in contrast with the real exchange rate, which measures the relative price of goods between two countries
  2. al exchange rates, domestic inflation, and foreign inflation are among them. As in the formula above, the real exchange rate is a function of these three variables. Term of trade. It is the ratio between the exported goods' price and the country's imported goods' price
  3. Exchange Rate will be:- Exchange Rate (€/ $) = 0.9034 Therefore, the exchange rate between the US and Euro is 0.9034. Therefore, if the traveler plans to raise the budget then he can do so taking the above-calculated exchange rate into consideration
  4. al Effective Exchange Rate can be calculated from the following formula: What is Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)? The real effective exchange rate (REER) is the weighted average of a country's currency in relation to an index or basket of other major currencies

Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) - Overview

  1. al exchange rate X domestic price / foreign currency. Let's take an example to explain this clearly. You need to know the rate of 1 kg of rice between the US and India
  2. al exchange rate into a real rate by multiplying by the ratio of the national price levels: U.S. goods per euro area goods basket = (USD per euro) * (euro price level) / (U.S. price level) FRED has many kinds of broad, real effective exchange rates. Here is a list of FRED's real U.S. exchange rates
  3. The Trade-Weighted Exchange Rate is a complex measure of a country's currency exchange rate. It measures the strength of a currency weighted by the amount of trade Absolute Advantage In economics, absolute advantage refers to the capacity of any economic agent, either an individual or a group, to produce a larger quantity with other countries

Two numerical examples are shown on how to use the theory of PPP to calculate the implied long-run nominal exchange rate.If this video helps, please consider.. The nominal exchange rate. This is the rate between two currencies, that is, the relative price of two currencies (the proposal to exchange one currency for another one). For example, the nominal exchange rate of the dollar to the pound sterling equals 2.00 USD / 1 GBP

Nominal Effective Exchange Rate is calculated as a weighted average of bilateral nominal exchange rates of national currency against foreign currencies. At the same time, conceptually, the Real Effective Exchange Rate is defined as a weighted average of a country's currency against a basket of other major currencies adjusted to the effects of. Bilateral Nominal Exchange Rate Which formula? The NEER is a weighted average of indexed nominal bilateral rates • Bilateral cross rates are expressed in foreign currency per domestic currency (E) and indexed to 100 • The more important a competitor, the higher the weight of its currency : 15 The nominal exchange rate is 7, price of a foreign basket is 6, and price of the domestic basket is 5. Real Exchange Rate = (7 x 6) / 5 = 42 / 5 = 8.4 Therefore, the real exchange rate is 8.4. Sources and more resource The nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) is an unadjusted weighted average rate at which one country's currency exchanges for a basket of multiple foreign currencies. The nominal exchange rate.

Real Exchange Rate: How To Calculate, Impacts, Determining

What is nominal effective exchange rate (NEER)? ← Methodology. NEER is a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies. An increase in NEER indicates an appreciation of the local currency against the weighted basket of currencies of its trading partners Formula to Calculate Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Purchasing power parity refers to the exchange rate of two different currencies that are going to be in equilibrium and PPP formula can be calculated by multiplying the cost of a particular product or services with the first currency by the cost of the same goods or services in US dollars The nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) index shows the appreciation (index above 100) or depreciation (index below 100) of the national currency against a basket of selected currencies for a certain period relative to a base period How to calculate Nominal exchange rate: There is no particular formula to calculate the Nominal exchange rate. Let's understand with the help of theory. If you go on a foreign country as it but obvious that if you are in foreign country you need the domestic currency of that country, so you go to the financial institution and demand the. The core equation is RER= eP*/P, where, in our example, e is the nominal dollar-euro exchange rate, P* is the average price of a good in the euro area, and P is the average price of the good in the United States. In the Big Mac example, e = 1.36

Two examples are presented showing how to calculate the real exchange rate.If this video helps, please consider a donation: https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/we.. Real Effective Exchange Rate Exchange rates based on a single currency pair are called bilateral exchange rates A weighted average of bilateral rates, with the weights proportional to the shares of trade of various partners, is called an effective exchange rate Both real effective exchange rates and nominal effective exchange rates are.

Exchange Rate Formula How to Calculate? (with Examples

With Office 365, you can insert Exchange rate in your worksheets. The version of Excel in Office 365 allows you to collect the exchange rate of currencies of the current day. Add Exchange Rate. The Office 365 version provides a great new feature ; Data Type. You just have to fill geographic data or financial data and Excel connects to a. Nominal Exchange Rates The exchange rates that we see on display in a bank or at an airport exchange kiosk are nominal exchange rates They can be expressed Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising

nominal exchange rate can somehow facilitate the adjustment toward this future real exchange rate. Thus the question of whethcr it makes sense to . 161 Equilibrium Exchange Rates calculate equilibrium real exchange rates as a basis for policy breaks into two subquestions: are there predictable and analyzable sources of real exchange. The calculation of inverse currency exchange rate is quite simply. It is needed to divide 1 by the current exchange rate. If exchange rate of USD/EUR is 0,892343 then the exchange rate of EUR/USD is 1 / 0,892343 = 1,1206 Large movements of the nominal exchange rate, coupled with the relative inertia of the price level, produced large uctuations in the 1. 2 LECTURE NOTES 1. EXCHANGE RATE OVERSHOOTING Figure 1.1: Rudiger Dornbush (1942-2002) real exchange rate. Purchasing power parity failed to provide a helpful short-run guide t

This activity will continue until the ratio of Big Mac™ prices is just equal to the nominal exchange rate. The Real Exchange Rate This information between nominal exchange rates and foreign/domestic prices of a common good can be expressed as a single value -- the Real Exchange Rate 'ε' r: ε r = e.r. nominal [P domestic / P foreign] o In this case, we begin with the equation for the real exchange rate of real exchange rate = (nominal exchange rate X domestic price) / (foreign price). Substituting in the numbers from above gives real exchange rate = (1600 X $6) / 3000 lira = 3.2 bottles of Italian wine per bottle of American wine Forward exchange rate is the exchange rate at which a party is willing to enter into a contract to receive or deliver a currency at some future date.. Currency forwards contracts and future contracts are used to hedge the currency risk. For example, a company expecting to receive €20 million in 90 days, can enter into a forward contract to deliver the €20 million and receive equivalent US. Replacing the nominal exchange rate with its real exchange rate by deflating them with the price indices of Japan and the corresponding countries and regions yields the formula for the real effective exchange rate. The base period is March 1973, just after Japan's adoption of the floating exchange rate system Complete the formula: real exchange rate = nominal exchange rate*(domestic prices/_____ ) A. price of gold. B. consumer price index. C. foreign prices. D. international price deflator. Question 5. No correct answers: No correct answer has been set for this question

The real exchange rate E is then the effective price of domestic goods compared to foreign goods, and the effective price of domestic goods for foreigners is eP, where P is the domestic price and e is the nominal exchange rate. So. E = eP/P* where P* is the foreign price. This equation can also be solved for the nominal exchange rate, yielding. However, due to market imperfectness, entities can make a profit off of it. This concept also relates to interest rate parity. For example, if the interest rate in the United States of America is 12% and the interest rate in the United Kingdom is 8%, anyone can borrow money in the UK at 8% and invest it in the USA at 12% and make a 4% profit on it Russian nominal exchange rate and CPI—There are no available series for the Russian nominal exchange rate before 1992 since the country was then a part of the USSR. In the ERS Agricultural Exchange Rate Data Set, we developed a smoothed series going back to historical exchange rates and inflation rates in the Soviet Union

Real effective exchange rate calculation example

Bilateral exchange rate involves a currency pair, while an effective exchange rate is a weighted average of a basket of foreign currencies, and it can be viewed as an overall measure of the country's external competitiveness. A nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) is weighted with the inverse of the asymptotic trade weights Nominal Interest Rate = 8% + 3%; Nominal Interest Rate = 11% Nominal Interest Rate Formula - Example #3. Lakshmi Vilas Bank is newly come to the market and wants to attract customer money through deposits, for this they come with the scheme that they will provide 9% of return if customers deposit their money for 3 years and the inflation rate in that particular time period is 4%

The reciprocal relationship holds for real exchange rates in the same way that it holds for nominal exchange rates. In this example, if the real exchange rate is 1.07 bottles of European wine per bottle of US wine, then the real exchange rate is also 1/1.07 = 0.93 bottles of US wine per bottle of European wine nominal interest rates in return for the money balances that they desire. ♦Those with money balances are more willing to give them up in return for interest bearing assets as the interest rate on these assets rises and as the opportunity cost of holding money (the nominal interest rate) rises The international Fisher effect (sometimes referred to as Fisher's open hypothesis) is a hypothesis in international finance that suggests differences in nominal interest rates reflect expected changes in the spot exchange rate between countries. The hypothesis specifically states that a spot exchange rate is expected to change equally in the opposite direction of the interest rate.

Therefore, real GDP growth rate (% change in quantity) equals the growth rate in nominal GDP (% change in value) minus the inflation rate (% change in price). Note that using this equation provides an approximation for small changes in the levels. For more accurate measures, one should use the first formula The Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) are two indicators of movement of the baht compared to trading partners' currencies, which are used to assess the country's price competitiveness along with its impact on the overall economy Suppose If the Effective Interest Rate or APY is 8.25% compounded monthly then the Nominal Annual Interest Rate or Stated Rate will be about 7.95%. An effective interest rate of 8.25% is the result of monthly compounded rate x such that i = x * 12. The formula can be written as: r = m × [ ( 1 + i) 1/m - 1 ] what is a Nominal Exchange rate? Nominal exchange rates refer to the exchange rates that prevail in the market at a particular time. For example 1 USD = Rs. 63. Normally, the nominal rate is presented in an index form which gives an idea of the increase or the decrease in the price of one currency with the other Rates of Inflation and Currency Value . If 2 countries have different rates of inflation, then the relative prices of goods in the 2 countries, such as footballs, will change. The relative price of goods is linked to the exchange rate through the theory of purchasing power parity

Ppp Exchange Rate Formula

What is Reer & Neer? UPSC Economy Note

In the aggregate, such information is important because it helps show at what rate the economy is expanding or contracting. reference. To use a price index to deflate a nominal series, the index must be divided by 100 (decimal form). The formula for obtaining a real series is given by dividing nominal values by the price index (decimal form. The nominal exchange rate is the relative price of two monies. It's determined by the monetary policies of the two countries in question. It plays no role in trade. Protectionism is a set of policies (such as tariffs and quotas) that drives a wedge between domestic and foreign prices. Protectionist policies reduce both imports and exports Graph and download economic data for China / U.S. Foreign Exchange Rate (DEXCHUS) from 1981-01-02 to 2021-04-23 about China, exchange rate, currency, rate, and USA

The nominal exchange rate of the economy is fixed with a basket of currencies of its major trading partners. It is also assumed that there is a tariff on imports. The price of tradables in terms of foreign currency is fixed and equal to unity, that is, P T = 1. Finally, perfect foresight is assumed in thi Graph and download economic data for Broad Effective Exchange Rate for United States (NBUSBIS) from Jan 1994 to Mar 2021 about broad, exchange rate, currency, indexes, rate, and USA How the exchange rate affects inflation. If there is a depreciation in the exchange rate, it is likely to cause inflation to increase. - (Import prices more expensive) An appreciation in the exchange rate will tend to reduce inflation. (Import prices cheaper) Why a depreciation causes inflatio The real exchange rate (RER) compares the relative price of two countries' consumption baskets. You may be interested in getting more information than the relative price of two currencies, or the nominal exchange rate. For example, you may want to know what one dollar can buy in the Euro-zone countries or what one euro can [ The assumption that the real interest rate in an economy should stay constant in the long-run is based on the notion that changes in money supply affects only nominal values such as prices, exchange rates and have no bearing on real indicators such as employment, real GDP, etc. Formula

Difference Between Nominal and Real Exchange Rate

Exchange Rates. Now let us look at the exchange rates of the six basket currencies with respect to the Indian Rupee. * exchange rates as of July 2018 base year Jan 2015. We have considered the EURO/INR as the exchange rate for Germany in this case. While calculating the exchange rate value, the agencies consider an average rate for a predefined. Therefore, the forward exchange rate is just a function of the relative interest rates of two currencies. In fact, forward rates can be calculated from spot rates and interest rates using the formula Spot x (1+domestic interest rate)/(1+foreign interest rate), where the 'Spot' is expressed as a direct rate (ie as the number of domestic currency. The precise formula is (1 + nominal interest rate) = (1 + real interest rate) x (1 + inflation rate). Since this formula can be difficult to calculate, a more commonly used formula is i ≈ r +π where i is the nominal interest rate, r is the real interest rate and π is the inflation rate.This second formula is a easy to use approximation that will work great when practicing for the AP. The formula you'll use is: S=P1/P2, with S representing the exchange rate, P1 representing the good in the first currency and P2 representing that same item in the second currency

Real, Nominal, Inflation and the Fisher Equation

Constructing a bilateral real exchange rate FRED Blo

Here, the PPP exchange rate formula to find the exchange rate between the two currencies, reveals the absolute purchasing power parity. It's simply a matter of calculating the ratio between the two prices: E = P1/P2. Where: E = Exchange rate P1 = Cost of the good in Currency 7-3. Real Effective Exchange Rate Index. What formula is used to convert a nominal effective exchange rate index into a real effective exchange rate index? A real effective exchange rate index adjusts the nominal effective exchange rate index to reflect differences in inflation. The adjustment is achieved by multiplying the nominal index by the ratio of domestic costs to foreign costs GDP nominal is the GDP unadjusted for the effects of inflation thus is at current market prices: GDP PPP is the GDP converted to US dollars using purchasing power parity rates and divided by total population Underlying Concept: GDP nominal is derived based on the concept of interest rates The real effective exchange rate index for the U.S. dollar, , is found by multiplying the nominal effective exchange rate index, , by the ratio of U.S. dollar costs, , over foreign currency costs, both in index form: 7-4. Real Effective Exchange Rates: Japan and the United States

RER between two currencies is the product of exchange rate — where the value of one currency is expressed in the terms of another — and the ratio of prices between the two countries.1. The other two terms, Real Effective exchange rate (REER) and Nominal Effective exchange rate (NEER), are primarily used by economists Synonyms for Nominal exchange rate in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Nominal exchange rate. 1 synonym for exchange rate: rate of exchange. What are synonyms for Nominal exchange rate The nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) of a national currency is a weighted average of nominal bilateral rates between the national currency and a basket of foreign currencies. It is an indicator of the external values of the national currency vis-à-vis the currencies of selected currency's main trading partners. For example, the nominal effective exchange [ The Equation of Exchange addresses the relationship between money and price level, and between money and nominal GDP. The equation simply states: M x V = P x Y. Where M = the money supply, usually the M1. V = the velocity of money. P = the price level. Y = real output, or real GDP Nominal Exchange Rates (continued) • The nominal exchange rate, or exchange rate, between two currencies, enom, is the number of units of foreign currency which can be purchased with a unit of the domestic currency. Exchange Rate Systems • In a flexible-exchange-rate,orfloating-exchange-rate, system exchange rates ar

Nominal vs. Real exchange rate: We can make a distinction between nominal and realexchange rates. The nominal exchange rate determines the price of the domestic currency in terms of the number of units of a foreign currency. In other words, the rate at which someone can trade the currency of their country for the currency of some other country Suppose the nominal interest rate on a 1-year US bond is 5% and the nominal interest rate in Mexico for a bond of the same maturity is 10%. The current exchange rate in the spot exchange rate market is 2.5 peso$/US$. a. If the uncovered interest rate parity is valid and the expected exchange rate for the next year is 2.4 peso$/US$, which of the two investments is more interesting to an. The real exchange rate is the product of the nominal exchange rate and the ratio of prices of a commodity in two economies. Therefore, it can be said that the real exchange rate will be affected. The real interest rate reflects the additional purchasing power gained and is based on the nominal interest rate and the rate of inflation. percent so even though the nominal return the fit the number if we just look at the if we just look at what we got in exchange for what we invested even though the the nominal return was ten percent. Next, we report measures of the unconditional volatilities of the nominal effective exchange rate and relative prices. These are reported in column one of Table 2, Table 3.In Table 2, the entries reveal that the nominal exchange rate of developing countries is about 3.5 times the volatility of industrialized countries in the short run and the long run, and that this difference is significant.

An even more radical form of real determination of exchange rate is offered by the one price law, according to which any good has the same price worldwide, after taken into account nominal exchange rates. If a hamburger costs 3 US dollars in the United States and 30 000 yen in Japan, then the exchange rate must be 10 000 yen per dollar To calculate exchange rate, multiply the money you have by the current exchange rate, which you can find through Google or by calling the Department of the Treasury. For example, if you want to convert $100 to pesos when 1 dollar equals 19.22 pesos, then you would have 1,922 pesos after the exchange Real Price of 1980 milk in year 2000 dollars = (Nominal Price 1980) x (CPI 2000 / CPI 1980). Real Price of 1980 milk in year 2000 dollars = ($1.29) x (168.4 / 86.7). Real Price of 1980 milk in year 2000 dollars = ($1.29) x (1.9423). Real Price of 1980 milk in year 2000 dollars = $2.51 in year 2000 prices. Now I have both prices in terms of year 2000 prices and I can compare

Trade-Weighted Exchange Rate - How to Calculate Currency

Effective Annual Rate: Formula & Calculations Exchange Rates & Currency Conversion Since this is the nominal rate, this is what would be published on the bank's sign or perhaps in a. Now recall the formula for the nominal exchange rate: ----We know that the real exchange rate remains constant, and we assume that the foreign price level P* is fixed. When the domestic price level P increases, the nominal exchange rate e depreciates. e. The increase in the demand for money has no affect on any real variables, as was explained. As the actual dollar exchange rate was 6.83 yuan in mid-2008, it may be inferred that Chinese yuan was undervalued by 49 per cent [{1 - (3.50/6.83)} 100], Using a similar formula, it is found that the currencies of Hong Kong and Malaysia (52%), Thailand (48%), Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and the Philippines (45%), and Indonesia (43%) were among the. the nominal exchange rate and relative price levels. In practice, however, when calculating or measuring the real exchange rate a large number of choices have to be made. These include: how many countries are to be compared, which domestic price measures are the most appropriate, how are the movements in the different bilateral real exchange rates Nominal Exchange Rate and Real Exchange Rate . The exchange rate as quoted in the foreign exchange market are nominal exchange rates. For instance, if dollar earlier in the market at Rs 45.00 is now quoted at Rs 45.40, the dollar has appreciated by 40 paise in nominal terms. When the inflation rate in two countries differs, the change in the.

Calculating the Nominal Exchange Rate Under Purchasing

nominal exchange rates that have been adjusted for relative price levels. Specifi cally, the NEER can be calculated as follows: The REER is the weighted average of NEER adjusted by the ratio of domestic price to foreign prices. Specifi cally, Where e represents the exchange rate of Indian rupe Relation between nominal and real returns and inflation dollar the the net dollar return and the net dollar return is the amount that we initially invested compounded by the nominal interest rate and here we're assuming that we're writing it as a decimal so in the example we've been using it was 10% and we're going to so this is going to be. Therefore, the growth rate of real GDP (% change in quantity) equals the growth rate in nominal GDP (% change in value) minus the inflation rate (% change in price). Note that using this equation provides an approximation for small changes in the levels. For more accurate measures, one should use the first formula shown. Key Concepts and Summar The formula for the real rate of return can be used to determine the effective return on an investment after adjusting for inflation. Real returns = (1 + nominal rate/1+inflation rate) - 1 The nominal rate is the rate that is declared by the bank or company accepting investments

Nominal Exchange Rate. Nominal exchange rates simply refer to the quoted rates we observe in the market. For example, on September 14th Bloomberg.com reported the GBP-USD exchange rate at 1.6217. Thus, the nominal exchange rate tells you how much of one currency you will receive for another (in the above case $1.6217 for each British pound) To convert from nominal interest rates to real interest rates, we use the following formula: real interest rate ≈ nominal interest rate − inflation rate. To find the real interest rate, we take the nominal interest rate and subtract the inflation rate. For example, if a loan has a 12 percent interest rate and the inflation rate is 8 percent.

The Calculating Types of Exchange Rates, The nominal

The equation of exchange can thus be rewritten as an equation that expresses the demand for money as a percentage, given by 1/V, of nominal GDP. With a velocity of 1.87, for example, people wish to hold a quantity of money equal to 53.4% (1/1.87) of nominal GDP If the nominal exchange rate is defined simply as the price of one currency in terms of another, then the real exchange rate is the nominal exchange rate adjusted for relative national price level differences. When PPP holds, the real exchange rate is a constant so that movements in the real exchange rate represent deviations from PPP The nominal interest rate which is also known as the annualized percentage rate or the APR is the interest that you would have to pay for before considering inflation. With this in mind, it is, therefore, essential for you to compute for the nominal interest rate of loans and credit cards

Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and Real Effective

If, in London, where the exchange rates are quoted indirectly, the US dollar is quoted at $ 1.6290-98, it means that while the quoting bank is willing to sell $ 1.6290 per pound, it will buy dollars at $ 1.6298. It will be readily appreciated that the selling rate for one currency is the buying rate for the other The nominal exchange rate is forward-looking. What does that mean for its current value? a) It depends equally on past and expected events. b) It is exclusively determined by current expectations about the future. c) It will slowly adjust to any expected future level No such adjustments happen in nominal rates. A nominal rate cannot be negative and can only go down to 0% while the real rate can be negative. For example: If the nominal rate in the market is 3% but inflation itself is 5%, effectively, the investor will lose money and will have a negative real interest rate Using an exchange rate of 6.97 yuan per dollar, that's $13.61 trillion U.S. dollars. The United States produced $20.54 trillion. However, most of the difference between the two is because the cost of living in China is much lower than it is in the United States Nominal EER. The ECB publishes the nominal effective exchange rate (EER) of the euro based on weighted geometric averages of bilateral euro exchange rates against the currencies of a selection of trading partners. This rate indicates whether it is getting more or less expensive on average to exchange foreign currency for euro

3 quantity theoryNominal GDP Targeting: An Optimal Rule for the WestReal Exchange Rate Formula CpiEast Asian Economic ReviewFRB: Capital Flows to Emerging Market Economies: A Brave

a nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) which is weighted with the inverse of the asymptotic trade weights.A real effective exchange rate (REER) adjust NEER by appropriate foreign price level and deflates by the home country price level. Compared to NEER, a GDP weighted effectiv A bilateral real exchange rate is the bilateral nominal exchange rate multiplied by a ratio of price indices of the two currencies. (How the ratio is taken depends on whether the currency pair is quoted in the E or R method.) Naturally, many different price indices can be used; most common, though, is the use of headline CPIs (consumer price. nominal appreciation pushes the domestic nominal interest rate down. As long as these effects are small, so that the nominal interest rate remains positive, opti-mal policy involves fluctuations in the nominal exchange rate and no capital controls. Thus, in dealing with this sudden stop shock, the exchange rate is the first line of response. The real exchange rate, V(t), and the real wage, W(t), are defined as the nominal exchange rate and wages are deflated by the consumer price index (cpi). Both are exogenous to the firm. From the above production function we can now define the maximized operating profits, r(K,t), as follows: 7r(K,t) _ max V(t)Pw(t)A1(t)'X(t)14W(t)N(t) N(t inflation between the two countries concerned. If the nominal exchange rate is defined simply as the price of one currency in terms of another, then the real exchange rate is the nominal exchange rate adjusted for relative national price level differences. When PPP holds, the real exchange rate is a constant, so tha REER is the real effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs. An increase in REER implies that exports become more expensive and imports become cheaper; therefore, an increase indicates a loss in trade competitiveness

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