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Real Effective exchange rate India data

India Real Effective Exchange Rate, 2004 - 2021 Dat

  1. India Real Effective Exchange Rate data is updated monthly and averaged 118.3 from Apr 2004 to Mar 2021. The data reached an all-time high of 118.3 in Nov 2017 and a record low of 94.8 in Apr 2009. CEIC generates Real Effective Exchange Rate Index with base 2005=100
  2. Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) from The World Bank: Data Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). Find Ou
  3. Taking the product of all the real effective exchange rate (REER) components we get the total REER for India with respect to the basket of six countries. REER = (0.27138)*(0.2988)*(0.4516)*(0.5823)*(0.654)*(0.7233) = 0.01008 Usually, the REER value is calculated for a particular year is benchmarked to a value of 100 and every subsequent year.

Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) Dat

The IMF publishes a range of time series data on IMF lending, exchange rates and other economic and financial indicators. Manuals, guides, and other material on statistical practices at the IMF, in member countries, and of the statistical community at large are also available The real effective exchange rate doesn't take into account price changes, tariffs, or other factors that may affect trade between nations. These include white papers, government data, original. Effective exchange rates are a summary measure of the changes in the exchange rates of a country vis-à-vis its trading partners. They provide a broad interpretation of a country's price competitiveness, which is, in turn, a major determinant of the success of different countries in raising exports and productivity, fostering innovation and improving living standards Real effective exchange rates for 178 countries: a new database. Using data on exchange rates and consumer price indices and a weighting matrix, we calculate up-to-date consumer price index-based REER (the real effective exchange rate) for 178 countries - many more than in any other publicly available database - plus for the euro area

Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER

  1. In this investigation, we use the real effective exchange rate as index is based on trade weights of India's 36 main trading partners and is adopted from the Reserve Bank of India database. We choose three general foreign exchange currency indexes: 1. Imports 2. Total Forex Spending and 3
  2. ing only individual exchange rates between the country's currency and other currencies
  3. Real Effective Exchange Rate based on CPI as Price Index for India* Effective exchange rates are summary indicators of movements in the exchange rates of home currency against a basket of currencies of trade partner countries and are considered to be an indicator of international competitiveness. Till now, in case of India, the Reserve Bank was.
  4. al and real effective exchange rate indices—released in the International Financial Statistics —reflect an update of the underlying trade-based weights and other methodological refinements. [1
  5. al and real effective exchange rate series and as an input to the BIS International Banking and Financial Statistics. 37. See M Klau and S Fung, The new BIS effective exchange rateindices
  6. However, manufacturing-focused real effective exchange rates deflated by producer prices (PPI) or unit labour cost in the manufacturing sector (ULCM) use weights solely based on trade in manufactured goods. The weights incorporate information on both exports and imports. Import weights are the simple shares of each partner country in total imports

The Indian rupee followed a pegged exchange rate system till 1991 after which it was shifted to a floating exchange rate system following an economic crisis in the country. The Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and the Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) of the INR are released by the RBI monthly local currency units to international $ Index 2010 = 100 . average annual % growt In 2019, real effective exchange rate for Pakistan was 97.1 index. Though Pakistan real effective exchange rate fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase through 2000 - 2019 period ending at 97.1 index in 2019. The description is composed by our digital data assistant

Reserve Bank of India - RBI Bulleti

  1. Real Effective Exchange Rate based on CPI as Price Index for India Date : Apr 11, 2014 Effective exchange rates are summary indicators of movements in the exchange rates of home currency against a basket of currencies of trade partner countries and are considered to be an indicator of international competitiveness
  2. Remittances in India have been growing rapidly since 1991. Most of the studies find that remittance has had a significant impact on real effective exchange rate (REER). It is imperative to evaluate..
  3. al and real effective exchange rates for most large, developed countries, aside from data on newly industrialized and developing countries. Central banks publish the broad effective exchange rates for their respective countries. By observing the data, economists can gain.
  4. REAL EFFECTIVE EXCHANGE RATES FOR 178 COUNTRIES: A NEW DATABASE ZSOLT DARVAS Highlights • We use data on exchange rates and consumer price indices and the weighting matrix derived by Bayoumi, Lee and Jaewoo (2006) to calculate consumer price index-based REER. The main novelties of our database are that (1) it includes data for 178 countries
  5. Real exchange rate is based on the purchasing power of currencies and it reflects the intrinsic value of one currency with the other. Suppose, in India the price of goods and services increase, which in USA, the price remains constant, then the real exchange rate of Indian rupee will go down in relation to that of American Dollar
  6. al and real terms (CPI-deflated) have been updated. Broad indices cover 60 economies, with data from 1994. Narrow indices cover 26 and 27 economies for the no

Real, Exchange Rate - Economic Data Series FRED St

Last update: 22 December 2020 This database includes real and nominal effective exchange rates from the papers: - Darvas, Zsolt (2012a) 'Real effective exchange rates for 178 countries: a new database', Working Paper 2012/06, Bruegel, 15 March 2012 - Darvas, Zsolt (2012b) 'Compositional effects on productivity, labour cost and export adjustment', Policy Contribution 2012/11, Bruegel, 22 June 201 Monthly data on effective exchange rate indices in nominal and real terms (CPI-deflated) have been updated. Broad indices cover 60 economies, with data from 1994. Narrow indices cover 26 and 27 economies for the nominal and real indices, respectively, with data from 1964. Daily data on effective exchange rate in nominal terms have also been updated Monthly data coverage (updated daily and populated upon availability) is provided for consumer prices, high-tech market indicators, industrial production and merchandise trade. ,Exchange rates, Equity markets, Interest ratesm bond inices Nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) Real effective exchange rate (REER) INDIA . 50 40. 60 70 . 80 . 90 . 100 . 110 . 1996 19962000 2004 2008 2012 . KOREA 50 : 60 . 70 . 80 90 100 . 2000 2004 2008 2012: Philippines : Availability of fairly comparable data across countries. Monthly CPI-based real effective exchange rates, January 1995January 2012 (December 2007 = 100) 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 .a Data sources a: Annual CPI-based real effective exchange rates, 1960-2011.

Filter down or select a maximum of 500 series keys Download Data. Available Datasets (1) Colours' legend: Dataset contains Reference series Effective exchange rates (EERs) unit labour costs in the manufacturing sector (ULCM) deflated ECB Real effective exch. rate ULC manufacturing deflated of the Chinese yuan renminbi against, EER-19. Data set (Number of Series) Description Data Structure Definition Excel Pivot Export; EXR : Exchange Rates (231 Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) - Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola from The World Bank: Data Learn how the World Bank Group is helping countries with COVID-19 (coronavirus). Find Ou The nominal exchange rate is 7, price of a foreign basket is 6, and price of the domestic basket is 5. Real Exchange Rate = (7 x 6) / 5 = 42 / 5 = 8.4. Therefore, the real exchange rate is 8.4. Sources and more resources. The World Bank - Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) - Country-specific data on real effective exchange.

One pair uses a narrow set of 27 countries with data going back to 1964, both in nominal terms and as a real effective exchange rate adjusted using consumer price inflation. The broad set covers 61 economies, but with data only from 1994, again available both as a nominal series and adjusted for relative inflation Filter down or select a maximum of 500 series keys Download Data. Available Datasets (1) Colours' legend: Dataset contains Reference series Effective exchange rates (EERs) producer price indices (PPIs) deflated ECB Real effective exch. rate producer prices deflated of the Euro against, EER-19 group of trading partners: AU,CA,DK,HK,JP,NO. December Reserve Bank of India Bulletin 2005 1061 C M Y K C M Y K 1061 1061 Revision of Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) Indices* The indices of Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) are used as indicators of external competitiveness. NEER i These rates are the official rates used by the Fund to conduct operations with member countries. The rates are derived from the currency's representative exchange rate, as reported by the central bank, normally against the U.S. dollar at spot market rates and rounded to six significant digits. Currency units per SDR (e.g. $ 1.47638 = 1 SDR Real effective exchange rate of Vietnam increased from 90.74 index in 2001 to 129.23 index in 2020 growing at an average annual rate of 1.94%. Dataset: World Bank Global Economic Monito

The index of Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) for the month of August slipped to 114.54 as against 121.14 in the corresponding month last year, reflecting a sharp decline of the rupee against. Real Exchange Rate and Real Effective Exchange Rate Measurement: Some theoretical Extensions By **IBRAHIM, W. Department of economics, Al-Hikmah University, Ilorin Mail: olafuhad@yahoo.com or ibraheed@alhikmah.edu.ng Mobile: +2348035146330 or 08074885981 **Ibrahim Waheed was a Ph.D. student of Professor Jimoh Ayodele In 2019, exchange rate for Kenya was 102 LCU per US dollars. Exchange rate of Kenya increased from 7.1 LCU per US dollars in 1970 to 102 LCU per US dollars in 2019 growing at an average annual rate of 6.25%. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market Effective exchange rates . I1 Nominal effective exchange rates . Broad indices; Narrow indices; I2 Real effective exchange rates . Broad indices; Narrow indice In 2019, exchange rate for Ethiopia was 29.1 LCU per US dollars. Exchange rate of Ethiopia increased from 2.5 LCU per US dollars in 1970 to 29.1 LCU per US dollars in 2019 growing at an average annual rate of 5.76%. Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market

Most people are familiar with the nominal exchange rate, the price of one currency in terms of another. It's usually expressed as the domestic price of the foreign currency. So if it costs a U.S. dollar holder $1.36 to buy one euro, from a euro holder's perspective the nominal rate is 0.735. But the nominal exchange rate isn't the whole story exchange rates, using data from 23 Februa ry 2001 to 11 January 2008 about Turkey. The They use monthly nominal effective exchange rates and stock prices exchange rates to stock prices for. Data. Nominal CEER indices include total, major currencies, other important trading partners, and total excluding the U.S. dollar. They are available daily and monthly. Real CEER indices include total, major currencies, other important trading partners, and total excluding the U.S. dollar. They adjust the nominal indices for price changes and are available only monthly — and only after the.

Real Effective Exchange Rate Data Catalo

YTR (Yf ) denotes the Turkish (foreign trading partner) industrial production which is used as a proxy for economic activity, and set in index form to make it unit free (Bahmani-Oskooee, 1991). The real effective exchange rate (RER) is defined in a way that an increase (decrease) represents a real appreciation (depreciation) of Turkish Lira Real effective exchange rate Real variables take account of the effects of price changes whereas nominal variables do not. The real effective exchange rate is a nominal effective exchange rate (such as the TWI described above) multiplied by the ratio of Australian prices to prices of our trading partners

Open Government Data (OGD) Platform Indi

What is real effective exchange rate (REER)? - IMF DATA Hel

Effective exchange rates - ECB Statistical Data Warehous

UPSC Prelims 2020 Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) and Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) - Duration: 23:14. Crux of Indian Economy 2,007 views. 23:14. The first 20 hours -- how to learn. The nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) is an unadjusted weighted average rate at which one country's currency exchanges for a basket of multiple foreign currencies. The nominal exchange rate. This paper examines the interaction between real effective exchange rate (REER) with select macroeconomic variables such as gross domestic product (GDP), foreign direct investment, foreign institutional investors (FII), fiscal deficits, terms of trade, trade openness, and foreign exchange reserves from 1981-2017 Summary Measures of the Foreign Exchange Value of the Dollar RSS Data Download Note: Effective June 1, 2019, the publication times of the G.5 monthly and the G.5A annual foreign exchange rate releases will change from 10:00 a.m. currently, to 4:15 p.m The REER data (base 1990=100) for four selected countries is set out in Fig. 1—Australia and Burundi (which have flexible nominal exchange rates) and Mali and Togo (which have fixed nominal exchange rates). An increase in the REER series indicates a real appreciation of the country's currency

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The Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) is an important determinant of measuring the global competitiveness of a country and, therefore, has a strong influence on export earnings, improvements in balance of payments and long term growth (Soutar and Santoya 2011) anchor for long-run real exchange rates' (Rogoff 1996). To test long-run PPP, econometricians concentrate on testing the stationarity of real exchange rates using time series and more recently panel data. Such tests are important because, first, they offer clues as to underlying reasons for real exchange rate movements The Indian rupee traded near a three-week high of 74.1 against the greenback at end April, helped by broad dollar weakness and expectations that COVID-19 cases could soon peak in India, as the surge in infections in Maharashtra is seen easing in May as the state enters its fourth-month of the second wave. Last week, the currency touched 75.4, its weakest level since July 2020 amid concerns.

36. Indices of Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) and Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER) of the Indian Rupee: 10 kb: 262 kb: 37. External Commercial Borrowings (ECBs) - Registrations: 10 kb: 262 kb: 38. India's Overall Balance of Payments (US $ Million) 13 kb: 267 kb: 39. India's Overall Balance of Payments (₹ Crore) 13 kb: 273 kb: 40 USD to INR exchange rate is published here and is very accurate, updating 24/7 with live exchange rates. Conversion of 1 usd to inr displayed in three ways: 1 usd to inr exchange rate, usd to inr converter and usd to inr live and history chart. Also you can see US dollar to Indian Rupee and Indian Rupee to US dollar prepared conversions INR - Indian Rupee. The Indian Rupee is the currency of India. Our currency rankings show that the most popular Indian Rupee exchange rate is the INR to USD rate. The currency code for Rupees is INR, and the currency symbol is ₹. Below, you'll find Indian Rupee rates and a currency converter Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) Definition: Real effective exchange rate is the nominal effective exchange rate (a measure of the value of a currency against a weighted average of several foreign currencies) divided by a price deflator or index of costs. Description: The map below shows how Real effective exchange rate index (2010 = 100) varies by country Nominal Effective Exchange Rate is calculated as a weighted average of bilateral nominal exchange rates of national currency against foreign currencies. At the same time, conceptually, the Real Effective Exchange Rate is defined as a weighted average of a country's currency against a basket of other major currencies adjusted to the effects of.

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IMF Dat

  1. the effect of real exchange rate movement on export, very few studies, have been undertaken in the African context to establish whether undervaluation helps to boost exports (Edwards, 1986; Brixiová and Ncube, 2014)
  2. al exchange rates (XRAT) and PPP conversion factors (PPP) to calculate a real exchange rate (RER):
  3. India (Currency: Indian Rupee abbreviated as INR) and USA (Currency: Dollar abbreviated as $ ). Exchange rate: $ 1 = INR 50. Consider a commodity let us say pencils: Assume that in year 2018 - one pencil costs $ 1 in USA and INR 50 in India. Now let us suppose that India faces an inflation of 10% per annum and there is no inflation in USA
  4. View a graph which plots historical exchange rates for the Indian Rupee against the US Dollar Invert table The table currently shows historical exchange rates for Indian Rupees per 1 US Dollar. Invert the table to see US Dollars per 1 Indian Rupee. Export to Excel Export this data to a CSV file which can be imported by Microsoft Excel
  5. between the real effective exchange rate and economic fundamentals, including the commodity terms of trade. The estimation relies on panel cointegration techniques and covers annual data from 1980 to 2007. Our results show that real exchange rates co-move with commodity prices in the long run and respond to oil price somewhat less than t
  6. exchange rates on balance of payment, though with mixed results. Likewise, Drama et al. (2010) investigated the effect of real exchange rate on the balance of trade of Cote d'Ivoire using VEC models with time series data covering the periods of 1975-2007. Estimated results also showed that the real effective exchange rate has

Real effective exchange rates A country's international competitiveness depends on relative movements in costs or prices after adjusting for exchange-rate movements. For example, if prices increase by 4% in Germany and 6% in the USA, US competitiveness appears to have fallen by 2% Nominal effective exchange rate(Neer) : The nominal exchange rate represents the current value of a currency against another country's currency. For Example : 1. The Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) takes multiple countries into account. Usually, it weights each country by the relative trade with the country for which we are calculating the real exchange rate. The International Monetary Fund uses a weighted average of several foreign currencies, divided by a price deflator or index of costs The Historical Currency Converter is a simple way to access up to 31 years of historical exchange rates for 200+ currencies, metals, and cryptocurrencies. OANDA Rates® cover 38,000 FX currency pairs, and are easily downloadable into an Excel ready, CSV formatted file Assuming that the real rate of return is the System (EMS) have been effective in maintaining PPP among its member countries. They attribute the difference in their findings to the statistical technique percentage change in the exchange rates. The data range from the second quarter of 1972 to the fourth quarter of 1996

Nominal effective exchange rate indices (11.1983 = 100) Export-weighted: neeri_2000_trade_wgt: Number: HKD per unit of foreign currency: Nominal effective exchange rate indices (01.2000 = 100) Trade-weighted: neeri_2000_import_wgt: Number: HKD per unit of foreign currency: Nominal effective exchange rate indices (01.2000 = 100) Import-weighted. Home / Economy / Real effective exchange rate dropped to a 4-month low due to depreciation in TL By Investing.com. Real effective exchange rate dropped to a 4-month low due to depreciation in TL By Investing.com. imsicoinexc 30 mins ago Economy Leave a comment 1 Views. Related Articles You need to know the rate of 1 kg of rice between the US and India. Let's assume the price of 1kg of rice in India as 80 INR, and the price of 1kg of rice (of equivalent quality) in US as $4. The exchange rate is $1 = INR60. This will be calculated as, real exchange rate = 60 × 4 / 80 = 3 Home > Indian Rupee Exchange Rates Table Indian Rupee Exchange Rates Table Converter Top 10 May 01, 2021 06:13 UTC. Indian Rupee Brazilian Real: 0.073361: 13.631131: Bruneian Dollar: 0.017954: 55.698797: Bulgarian Lev: 0.021946: 45.565403: Canadian Dollar For commercial-grade data, get the XE Currency Data API. Change Currency Table.

Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER) Definitio

India - Interest Rate Reserve Bank of India keeps rates unchanged in April. At its monetary policy meeting ending on 7 April, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) kept its policy rates unchanged, which met market expectations. The RBI left the reverse repurchase rate, the repurchase rate and the marginal standing facility rate at 3.35%, 4.00% and 4. India GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was INT$8,490.84billion for 2020 in PPP terms. World Economics makes available of world's most comprehensive GDP database covering over 130 countries with historical GDP PPP data from 1870-2020, building on the lifetimes work of Angus Maddison. - World Economic The trade-weighted effective exchange rate index, a common form of the effective exchange rate index, is a multilateral exchange rate index.It is compiled as a weighted average of exchange rates of home versus foreign currencies, with the weight for each foreign country equal to its share in trade. Depending on the purpose for which it is used, it can be export-weighted, import-weighted, or.

OECD iLibrary Real effective exchange rate

Growth has shown a big decline, and the world economy is booming, so India is in low growth mode because of demonetisation. The second most popular explanation centres around the appreciation of the RBI's nominal 36-country real effective exchange rate (REER) The term 'effective' means that several exchange rates are combined to form an index where the exchange rate and price index of each competitor country are assigned a weight based on their importance in the given country's trade basket real effective exchange rate is synonymous with real exchange rate. As defined by Edward (1989), to obtain the real exchange indexes the relevant way is real effective exchange rate. Following Edward's (1989) definition, an increase in the value of real exchange rate implies real

Corporate Tax Rate in India remained unchanged at 25.17 percent in 2021 from 25.17 percent in 2020. Corporate Tax Rate in India averaged 33.75 percent from 1997 until 2021, reaching an all time high of 38.95 percent in 2001 and a record low of 25.17 percent in 2019. This page provides - India Corporate Tax Rate - actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar. The real effective exchange rate is calculated as follows. Each of the yen's exchange rates against other major currencies (i.e. nominal exchange rates) is deflated by the price indices of Japan and the corresponding countries and regions to calculate the real exchange rate. The, weighted average (geometric mean) of the real exchange rates is. RIETI started publishing the novel dataset of the industry-specific nominal effective exchange rate (I-NEER) and the industry-specific real effective exchange rate (I-REER) in May 2011 in cooperation with the Center for Economic and Social Studies in Asia (CESSA) of the Department of Economics at Yokohama National University (YNU) NOTE: All 2020 and later data are UN projections and DO NOT include any impacts of the COVID-19 virus. Chart and table of the India death rate from 1950 to 2021. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100

Real effective exchange rates for 178 countries: a new

The Laspeyres formula is generally used. India inflation rate for 2019 was 7.66%, a 2.8% increase from 2018. India inflation rate for 2018 was 4.86%, a 2.37% increase from 2017. India inflation rate for 2017 was 2.49%, a 2.45% decline from 2016 Real Effective Exchange Rate Exchange rates based on a single currency pair are called bilateral exchange rates A weighted average of bilateral rates, with the weights proportional to the shares of trade of various partners, is called an effective exchange rate Both real effective exchange rates and nominal effective exchange rates are. Publications; Statistics Currently selected. Inflation Rates; Exchange Rates; Official Exchange Rates; Liquidity Data; Discount Rates; Daily Interbank Rates & Volumes; Bi-Weekly Interbank Rates & Volume rate has been used as a dependent variable, in this study the real effective foreign exchange rate was used as an indicator that considers inflation differences, as well. Second, although most of studies in the literature investigate the effect of foreign exchange rates on the foreign trade balance, in this study the effect of foreign exchange.

Impact of Exchange Rate Movements on Indian Firm Performanc

  1. es foreign exchange interventions for a sample of 33 advanced and developing economies. Interventions occur frequently, in episodes that can last several days, and are often successful in smoothing exchange rates. These results show that central bankers
  2. ants form Jan, 1993 through December, 2013 for identifying the impact of various deter
  3. Mumbai: The Indian rupee's 2.3% appreciation last week has added to its over-valuation in terms of real effective exchange rate (REER), which is already near its highest since 2011
  4. imizing of the gap of GDP per capita between two kinds of the provinces. They show moreover that the real exchange rate appreciation acted negative effects on employment

Build historic rate tables with your chosen base currency with XE Currency Tables. For commercial purposes, get an automated currency feed through the XE Currency Data API Assumptions for selected changes in currency exchange rates vs. USD, nominal and real OUR LONG-HELD VIEW OF A SECULAR USD DOWNTREND HAS A CYCLICAL CATALYST IN THE NEW CYCLE Source: Bloomberg spot FX, J.P. Morgan Asset Management; estimates as of September 30, 2020

Real effective exchange rate (CPI based) - TCdata36

The terms of trade channel mostly focuses on real oil prices and exchange rates, while the wealth and portfolio channels propose an effect from the nominal exchange rate to the nominal oil price. The expectations channel allows for nominal causalities in both directions. Figure 2. Oil price and exchange rate causalities Source: own illustratio long-run real effective exchange rate volatility before the Great Recession in 2008~2009. Moreover, while the Great Recession increased real effective exchange rate volatility by 38~189% of the sample mean for the countries outside the eurozone, the real effective exchange rate of the euro adopters were almost completely insulated. We conclude tha

The role of exchange rate policies in economic development is still largely debated. This column argues that there are theoretical foundations for policies that guarantee competitive and stable real exchange rates. When there are constraints on the available set of policy instruments, the complementary use of competitive exchange rates with export taxes for traditional expor purpose. Most real exchange rates are measured as a (geometric) average of real bilateral exchange rates for the country's major trading partners, weighted by their trade shares (real effective exchange rates).2 The measure most commonly used by the Reserve Bank is based on core CPIs and is referred to as the real trade-weighted index, or.

The real exchange rate (RER) compares the relative price of two countries' consumption baskets. You may be interested in getting more information than the relative price of two currencies, or the nominal exchange rate. For example, you may want to know what one dollar can buy in the Euro-zone countries or what one euro can [ I'm conducting VAR on Stata using a panel method to estimate exchange rate shock resistance for India for the past 2 decades or so, however the monthly values for India's real exchange rate vs the USD using the formula (nominal*foreign/domestic price) that I have computed using data from IFS from the IMF are much lower than the literature (e.g. data I have computed has India's 1994 real.

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