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Insulation resistance of cable formula

Measurement of insulation resistance (IR) - Part

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  3. If insulation resistance of the cable is found between 1000 and 100 KΩ /km, at buried temperature, the subject cable should be replaced urgently within a year. If the insulation resistance of the cable is found less than 100 kilo ohm/km., the subject cable must be replaced immediately on emergency basis
  4. If the insulation resistance of a cable of length 10m is 1 megaohm. the resistance measured are like parallel impedances. The longer the cable the more opportunities for leakage current, i.e. the lower the effective resistance. 50km=50x10^3 m Insulation resistance = 1 Mohm / (50x10^3 / 10) = 200 oh

Resistance or opposition provided by current flow insulation is also radial throughout its length. For a core cable conductor of radius r1, inner cover radius r2, length l and insulation material resistivity of, the perimeter of the conductor is 2πrl. The thickness of the insulation will be given as DAS. Rinse = r dr / 2πr R=insulation resistance. But remember that the total value of measured insulation resistance= small internal resistance of equipment+insulation resistance. If the insulation strength is high, value of R will be low and if the insulation is weak the IR will be low with high current. Factors that affect the Insulation resistance The results obtained from IR Test are not intended to be useful in finding localized defects in the insulation as in a true HIPOT test, but rather give information on the quality of the bulk material used as the insulation.. Even when not required by the end customer, many wire and cable manufacturers use the insulation resistance test to track their insulation manufacturing processes, and. insulation (resistance decreases in temperature or moisture). With a little record-keeping and common sense, however, you can get a good picture of the insulation condition from values that are only relative. The Megger insulation tester is a small, portable instrument that gives you a direct reading of insulation resistance in ohms or megohms. For a single core cable conductor of radius r 1, internal sheath radius r 2, length l and insulation material resistivity ρ, the perimeter of the conductor is 2πr l. The thickness of the insulation will be given as dr. Rins = ρdr/2πrl When integrated, we will have

Head Office Siechem Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 26/27, Errabalu Chetty Street, Chennai - 600 001, India. Tel: +91 44 25226141 / 25220859. Fax:+91 44 2522287 For cables rated 600 V, the minimum acceptable insulation resistance values for cable lengths from 100 to 1000 feet would be as shown in the following table, from IEEE 525. Table 1: Minimum Acceptable Insulation Resistance for 600 V Cable, from 100 to 1000 Feet . Length of Cable IEEE 525 (Guide for the Design and Installation of Cable Systems in Substations) and IEEE 422 (Guide for the Design and Installation of Cables Systems in Power Generating Stations)attempt to quantify the effects of distance in a formula for the minimum acceptable insulation resistance. The formula is: R(in MOhms) = (rated voltage in KV + 1.

insulation looks ok. Time-resistance tests on large rotating electrical machin-ery - especially with high operating voltage - require high insulation resistance ranges and a very constant test voltage. A heavy-duty megohmmeter serves this need. Similarly, such an instrument is better adapted for cables, bushings If insulation resistance of the cable is found between 1000 and 100 KΩ /km, at buried temperature, the subject cable should be replaced urgently within a year. If the insulation resistance of the cable is found less than 100 kilo ohm/km., the subject cable must b For a fixed voltage, the higher the current, the lower the resistance (E=IR, R=E/I). The total resistance is the sum of the internal resistance of the conductor (small value) plus the insulation resistance in MOs. The value of insulation resistance read on the meter will be a function of following three independent sub-currents

in parallel use the formula : 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2. alternatively Rt = (R1 x R2)/ (R1 + R2 Insulation Resistance (IR) of the assumed layer = ρdx/ 2πxL (From Resistance = ρL/A) Now, for getting the IR of whole cable we need to integrate up to a radius of R2 starting from R1 and to a length L If we apply a voltage across a resistor and then measured the consequential current flow, we can then use the formula R=U/I, (where U=Voltage, I=Current and R=Resistance) to calculate the resistance of the insulation Consider an example using the reistance formula:- A copper conductor of length 500 meters is used to supply electrical energy to a lighting load of 1,000W. If the cross sectional area of the conductor is 10mmsq, calculate the resistance of the conductor

Measurement of insulation resistance - Electrical

  1. ute or 10
  2. When temperature increases, insulation resistance decreases, and vice versa. A common rule of thumb is insulation resistance changes by a factor of two for each 10 DegrC change. So, to compare new readings with previous ones, you'll have to correct your readings to some base temperature. For example, suppose you measured 100 megohms with an.
  3. This video presentation of Insulation resistance of single core cable is represented by http://www.electrical4u.co
  4. with insulation resistance specifications so they can operate safely. Whether it involves the connection cables, the sectioning and protection equipment, or the motors and generators, the electrical conductors are insulated using materials with high electrical resistance in order to limit, as much as possible, th
  5. Understanding the Insulation Resistance of a Cable; Previous Next. Electricity is like a kitchen knife. If you use it wisely, it can cut food and prepare delicacies. If you use it unwisely, it can end up cutting your finger. Electricity flows through anything that is a conductor. Interestingly, humans are very good conductors of electricity
  6. I recorded this a while ago so I apologise for the audio.One of the common calculations and formula used in the City and Guilds 2391 course involves combinin..

Insulation Resistance (IR) Values Electrical Notes

  1. The basics of insulation resistance. One of the most fundamental of electrical installation and maintenance tasks is taking insulation resistance (JR) readings. This is done to verify the integrity of the insulating material, be it wire and cable insulation or motor/generator winding insulation
  2. Estimated Insulation Resistance of a cable:IR = K log (D/d)K = specific insulation resistance in megohs - 1000 feet at 60 Deg. F (K = 2000 for PVC; 50,000 for EPR; 100,000 for XLP)D = diameter.
  3. imum insulation resistance values. R - MOs per 1000 feet (305 meters) of cable. Based on dc test potential of 500 volts, applied for one
  4. The target value of the insulation resistance of a particular cable can be calculated using the following formula: IR = K • Log 10 (D/d) IR = Insulation resistance in MΩ•1000 feet at 60°F or MΩ•km at 15.6°C
  5. Cable insulation is used to provide electrical separation between conductors of a cable. During the historical development of cables, numerous types of insulation have been employed. During recent years, there has been some consolidation Radiation Resistance max Mrad. 80. 80. 80. 80. Tensile Strength N/mm 2. 10-25. 10-25. 10-25. 10-25.
  6. For cable insulation resistance calculation, the equation goes: IR = K * log (D/d) [megaOhm-1000ft] where D = diameter of insulated conductor and d = diameter of copper inductor ICEA has some K numbers for PVC and rubber. But how is K calculated? It's nowhere explained. I've come across this equation for K, but the source is not cited

Insulation Resistance Testing: How Many Megohms increase the insulation resistance value to an acceptable the minimum insulation resistance value, Insulation Resistance - TalkTalk Minimum values of insulation resistance: values for a 400/230 volt system are acceptable down to .5M/ohms, Insulation resistance exists in ALL components between the mains circuits and the protective ground circuit. These insulations include the wire insulation of the mains cord, the solid insulations of appliance . couplers, fuseholders, switches, circuit boards, and transformers. Also included is the insulation resistance of the Y capacitors Capacitance of Cables 54 Insulation Resistance 54 Jacket Materials Selection Chart 55 Decimal Equivalents & Temperature Conversion Table 56 Equivalents of Sq. MM. 57 Sq. In. and Circular Mils Reel Capacities Reusable Reels 58 Reusable Reels 59 - 60 Table of Contents Okonite Cables. Pag To give you the correct answer I need to find the old Megger insulation testing booklets I bought via Ebay some years ago. First off there isn't a 1 Mohm minimum insulation resistance for an existing installation, when you are preparing an Electrical Installation Condition Report you need to make an engineering judgement as to whether the insulation resistance test result is acceptable; and it.

Capacitance Calculation | SiechemInsulation Resistance Testing from Cole-Parmer

INSULATION TYPE DIELECTRIC CONTSTANT Cable Spacing B (in): XLPE 2.3 Cable Spacing C (in): EPR 3 Correction Factor Installation Type Table-4: 5 100 0.09 PVC 5 Inductance (mH): 5 133 0.09 Reactance (ohms): 8 100 0.115 Correction Factor for Installation Table-4 Resistance Calculation 8 133 0.1 The required formula is - R=1+V, Here R=resistance in mega ohm(MΩ), V= equipment rated voltage in KV. So if we like to check a machine rated voltage is 11 KV, the minimum tolerated insulation resistance will be R=1+11=12MΩ, and for a motor with 220 voltage rating the IR value will be R=1+.220=1.2MΩ What is Done During Insulation Resistance Measurement? The measurement of insulation resistance is a common routine test performed on all types of electrical wires and cables. Its objective is to measure the ohmmic value of the insulation under a direct voltage of great stability, generally 50, 100, 250, 500, or 1000 VDC insulation looks ok. Time-resistance tests on large rotating electrical machinery - especially with high operating voltage - require high insulation resistance ranges and a very constant test voltage. A heavy-duty megohmmeter serves this need. Similarly, such an instrument is better adapted for cables, bushings The insulation resistance test is a great means of evaluating a wire/cable performance and insulation integrity. It is also important to know that how the test is performed is just as important as the results themselves; without a clear understanding of the equipment, voltages, and system to be evaluated, the results can be meaningless

In an insulation resistance test: At ___ the resistance needs to be higher than ___ or the test will fail because the current will be larger than ___. Calculations you've done so far: Note: This calculator can generate combinations of voltage and current that are not practical in normal cable testing applications Low Voltage and High Voltage Cable Testing Low Voltage XLPE Distribution Cables: Insulation Resistance: Cables shall be tested for insulation resistance with an insulation tester (i.e. Megger) at 1000 Volts for 1 minute. The minimum insulation resistance to earth or between phases shall be 100 meg-ohms. The instrument used for this measurement shall have

The dielectric of a capacitor has a large area and a short length. Even if the material is a good isolator there always flows a certain current between the charged electrodes (the current increases exponentially with the temperature). This leakage can be described as a parallel resistance with a high value, an IR Insulation Resistance (Figure. additional insulation strength over the 100 percent level category is desirable. 173 Percent Level - Cables in this category should be applied on systems where the time required to de-energize a grounded section is indefinite. Their use is recommended also for resonant grounded systems. Consult the cable manufacturer for insulation thicknesses Meggers are generally of Rating 500 V, 2.5 kV and 5 kV. In modern Megger as shown in figure above these range can be selected. 500 V is used to measure the Insulation resistance of control cable for Insulator which can withstand up to 1.1 kV voltage

What is the formula of calculating insulation resistance

Insulation resistance. The insulation resistance is the resistance in ohms of wires, cables and electrical equipment. It is important to guard against electric shocks and avoid equipment damage from accidental discharges. The method of measuring the insulation resistance is to test and assess the state of the isolation (head and body. The minimum acceptable insulation resistance value is calculated using the following formula: 304.8 RInsulation (VRated 1) L Where: RInsulation is the minimum acceptable insulation resistance value, in mega-ohms; VRated is the rated voltage of the cable (typically printed on the cable), in kilovolts; and L is the length of the cable, in meters. Standard Wire & Cable Company can supply you with the right sizes, types, and quantities of product you need to keep you on schedule and your management happy. We have been doing this for companies since 1947. If you need a non-stock item, don't worry. We will have it made for you. Custom cable and custom heat shrink shapes are another of our specialties Insulation - Terms, Definitions & Formula Revision 2.0, August 2014 3.0 Information Gathering 3.1 Insulation and K Factor Insulation is typically the largest resistance component in a heat loss system. The better the insulation resistance, the longer it takes to reach thermal equilibrium The target value of the insulation resistance of a particular cable can be calculated using the following formula: IR = K • Log10 (D/d) IR = Insulation resistance in MΩ•1000 feet at 60°F or MΩ•km at 15.6°C K = Specific insulation resistance constant in MΩ•1000 feet at 60°F or MΩ•km at 15.6°C See Value of K in Table 1

XLPE insulation for cables. XLPE is the abbreviation of cross-linked polyethylene.In this type of cable stranded aluminum or copper conductor is screened in the form of semiconducting extrusion. Due to which it provides a smooth conducting surface. It also resists the formation of cavities at the conductor surface. It is the form of a cross-link poly-phone Insulation resistance testing is a key test for electrical cables as it is a measure of how effectively the cable is insulated. Poor insulation may result in short circuit, electric shock or fire. This cable test, conducted as specified in BS EN 50395, is designed to test the insulation at the cable's maximum operating temperature

The insulation resistance of a 1 Km long cable is 1 Mega

  1. The insulation resistance calculation for three-conductor cables is different between the Neher-McGrath approach and IEC 60287 standard, which may result in a significant difference in cable thermal resistance value
  2. imum acceptable insulation resistance value is calculated using the following formula: L V R Rated Insulation 8 . 304 ) 1 ( Where: Insulation Ris the
  3. A. Insulation Resistance (IR) is the extent to which the dielectric material in a capacitor resists leakage current. It is the resistance of the dielectric material itself*1. IR is measured by leakage current. Knowing the leakage current and applied voltage, the insulation resistance can be calculated based on the ohm's law
  4. The insulation keeps the current flowing along the wire, exactly as intended. Using insulation testing, with an instrument such as the Fluke 1555 10 kV Insulation Tester combined with Fluke Connect® technology, such leaks can be detected as insulation resistance slowly tapers over time—a sign of normal and expected deterioration. In other.
  5. Portable measurement equipment in a wide variety of fields: testing and inspection, environmental measurements, laboratory instrumentation, power and energy
  6. Megger is also called as a Megaohmmeter and is a device used for the testing of insulation resistance of a cable. Test performed so performed to know the insulation resistance value is known as Megger Test. A megger testing device is shown in the figure below

Insulation Resistance Of A Cable Why Cables Are

These coatings can be applied to most any alloy wire with a diameter between 25 microns and 0.5 mm to create a premium quality custom wire for any application. The enamel is applied in a controlled bath and then cured at the optimal temperature for the specific coating formula to ensure that the insulation has a consistent thickness and will. Resistance: Temperature Coefficient . Since the electrical resistance of a conductor such as a copper wire is dependent upon collisional proccesses within the wire, the resistance could be expected to increase with temperature since there will be more collisions, and that is borne out by experiment. An intuitive approach to temperature dependence leads one to expect a fractional change in. Actual measured resistance = 45 ohms and is acceptable because this is less than maximum specified resistance allowable. Control Cable Installation Precautions For control cable protection, cable should be surrounded by at least 6 inches of fine sand. Care must be taken to prevent damage to the cable or insulation by falling rocks, sharp.

What is insulation resistance & how it is calculated

For example, a wire's resistance is higher if it is long and thin, and lower if it is short and thick. All objects resist electrical current, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero. The resistance R of an object is defined as the ratio of voltage V across it to current I through it, while the conductance G is the reciprocal Touch the cables of the PV array on the insulation only. The expected total resistance of the PV system or of an individual string can be calculated using the following formula: The exact insulation resistance of a PV module can be obtained from the module manufacturer or the datasheet

Insulation Resistance of a Cable Why Cables are insulated

Ⅱ Structure and Composition of Insulation Resistance Meter 2.1 DC High Voltage Generator. Measuring the insulation resistance must apply a high voltage at the measuring end. This high voltage value is specified in the national standard of the insulation resistance meter as 50V, 100V, 250V, 500V, 1000V, 2500V, 5000V.. Therefore, only the original resistance of wire comes into play. Good to know: That's why the resistance offered by a wire is lower for DC than AC as will as AC lines need more insulation than DC. Measuring DC Resistance. Electrical Resistance Formulas. In DC Circuits, we calculate the resistance by Ohm's Law Insulation has both electrical resistance and capacitance - and it conducts current through both paths. Given the high resistance of insulation, very little current should actually leak. But -- if the insulation is old or damaged, the resistance is lower and substantial current may flow Cable Insulation Resistance Test Measurement Process. The Cable Insulation Resistance Test (IR) test (also commonly known as a Megger) is a spot insulation test which uses an applied DC voltage (typically either 250Vdc, 500Vdc or 1,000Vdc for low voltage equipment <600V and 2,500Vdc and 5,000Vdc for high voltage equipment) to measure insulation resistance in either kΩ, MΩ or GΩ

Insulation Resistance Calculation Sieche

  1. Power cable insulation: Cross-linked polyethylene is widely used as electrical insulation in power cables of all voltage ranges but it is especially well suited to medium voltage applications. It is the most common polymeric insulation material. The acronym XLPE is commonly used to denote cross-linked polyethylene insulation
  2. or imperfections in applying insulation are
  3. Insulation resistance readings should remain fairly constant over a period of time. A sharp dip in trending of insulation resistance values point towards insulation degradation and further investigation is required to diagnose the problem. Insulation tests on current transformers rated 600V or less are usually performed at 1000VDC. Prior to.
  4. ation of equation 3.32 would reveal that with increase in r (i.e., thickness of insulation), the thermal resistance of insulating increases but the resistance due to convection coefficient at the outer surface drops. The thermal resistance due to inside film coefficient remains unaffected with change in radius r

Wire gauge is a standard unit for measuring the diameter of the wire and American wire gauge, or AWG, is the standard used in North America. The diameter and cross-sectional area of a wire can be found using the wire gauge and a few simple formulas ⇒ A certain cable has an insulation of relative permittivity 4. If the insulation is replaced by one of relative permittivity 2, the capacitance of the cable will become one half double four times none of the above ⇒ The material for armouring on cable is usually steel tape galvanised steel wire any of the above none of the abov When the insulation resistance reading obtained after the voltage has been applied for 1 minute (IR 1) is higher than 5000 MΩ, based on the magnitude of applied direct voltage, the total measured current (I T) can be in the sub micro-ampere range. At this level of required test instrument sensitivity, small changes in the supply voltage.

Cable tracing is done to determine that the route of the cable is following the expected path. Step 4 - Fault identification: The first major procedure is to determine the phase on which the fault has occurred and if it is of low or high resistance. This test determines the correct technique, and therefore equipment, needed to diagnose the fault magnet wire / winding wire engineering data Round Wire For round conductor, where the cross-sectional area may be more Circular Mil Area = D 2 conveniently expressed in Circular Mils, the following formulas are Square Mil Area = /4 D 2 = 0.7854 D D 2 useful: Square Inch Area = 0.7854 x 10-6 2 General Formula: Lbs./1000 Ft. = 0.00034047 (d) (D 2 Cables flex in one or more of the four basic motions illustrated in Figure 1. Each time a cable bends or flexes, its copper conductors and shields are stressed. Copper has poor resistance to repeated stressing, even if the stress is kept below its ultimate yield point of 15 percent elongation

2- Wire 3- Wire 4- Wire 6- Wire Terminal Sheath OD Compression Fitting Nominal Length of RTD L (mm) Threads M-Thread 1/2 BSPT M20X1.5 Other Consult Factory N/A Not Applicable BSPT 1 2 Other Pt-100x1, Simplex Pt-100x2, Duplex Consult Factory Teminal & Ceramic 3 3.2 4.8 6 8 Other Ø3mm Ø3.2mm Ø4.8mm Ø6mm 6.35 Ø6.35mm Ø8mm Consult. The energy into the cable during a fault is given by: Q = I 2 R t. R - the resistance of the cable, Ω. From the physical cable properties we can calculate m and R as: m = ρ c A l and R = ρ r l A. ρ c - material density in g.mm-3. ρ r - resistivity of the conductor, Ω.mm. l - length of the cable, mm. Combining and substituting we have: I 2. Equations for coaxial cable attenuation used to be offered here, but while re-designing this page and attempting to verify the equations, I discovered (or probably re-discovered) that theoretical values versus published measured values for real-world cable varied a lot at every frequency. RG6 coax, for example, can have a loss at 1 GHz ranging.

Insulation Resistance (Megger) testing long run cables

When a steady value of insulation resistance is obtained, it is due to the resistive element of current flow only. If insulation resistance were to be tested with an AC test voltage, then the value would be lower as the cable would appear to pass a capacitative current in addition the the resistive current Now to the next item you haven't specified: The thermal resistance between the cable and the environment! A standard, thick insulation cable - I would guess at about 5°C/W, meaning that the copper will reach 160°C over ambient temperature under load (not at once, but eventually). Now we come to the heat capacity of copper E.g. 1.5 mm^2 would be satisfactory for about 15A (in free air, room temperature, PVC insulation), but you'd need 4 mm^2 for 30 A and 25 mm^2 for 120 A. If you installed a cable, so that it ran under carpet, or under some foam insulation you would need to use a thicker cable (because the heat could't escape so easily) Min MEGOHMS RESISTANCE * CABLE TYPE 5.23-13.3 mm2 (AWG 10-6) 21.1-42.5 mm2 (AWG 4-1) 53.4-67.5 mm2 (AWG 1/0-2/0) RHW, RHH, USE 2000 1500 1300 Cross-linked Polyethylene XHHW 1600 1100 900 Rubber Neoprene RHW Without Jacket THW CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE MEGOHMS COMMENTS Conductor 1 to Ground Conductor 2 to Ground Neutral to Groun

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Insulation Resistance Testing from Cole-Parme

After all cable, wiring and equipment installation on the vehicle, the insulation integrity of all vehicle circuits shall be tested according to the procedures herein. Assemblies that have previously been tested for dielectric strength need not be electrically connected during the vehicle dielectric test. A final insulation resistance tes United Kingdom. Megger Ltd. Dover, Kent. CT17 9EN. Extensions 44 (0) 1304 502 100. 101 (Sales) 102 (Technical support The dielectric of a capacitor has a large area and a short length. Even if the material is a good isolator there always flows a certain current between the charged electrodes (the current increases exponentially with the temperature). This leakage can be described as a parallel resistance with a high value, an Insulation Resistance (Figure C1-10) Electrical cable sizing software. Current capacity to BS 7671, ERA 69-30 and IEC 60502. Impedance and voltage drop to IEC 60909 and CENELEC CLC/TR 50480. Cloud based - any device, anywhere It can be derived the critical radius of insulation depends on the thermal conductivity of the insulation k and the external convection heat transfer coefficient h. As can be seen, if r 1 < r cr , as it is in this case, the total resistance decreases and the heat rate therefore increases with the addition of insulation

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SOLVED: 2392 Question Parallel Insulation Resistance

Distribution cables with extruded insulation for rated voltages from 3.6/6 (7.2) kV up to and including 20.8/36 (42) kV. HD 632 Power cables with extruded insulation and their accesso-ries for rated voltage above 36 kV (Um=42 kV) up to 150 kV (Um=170 kV). Part 1- General test requirements. Part 1 is based on IEC 60840, and follows that standar The insulation resistance test is an electrical test which uses a certain type and level of voltage (500V d.c. for low voltage installations i.e.: 230V) to measure insulation resistance in Ohm`s. The measured resistance indicates the condition of the insulation between two conductive parts. An infinite resistance would be the perfect result. IEC 60287 Part 2-1 Thermal resistance - Calculation of thermal resistance gives the required formulas and figures to calculate the thermal resistance of a cable in various conditions. \$\endgroup\$ - Li-aung Yip Nov 18 '15 at 9:2 More insulation is always better in the sense that it decreases the probability of an insulation failure. 600 V cable is also used on 600 V systems, for that matter. There is a big difference between cable insulation concerns when dealing with low voltage systems as compared with medium-voltage systems

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Insulation resistance IR quality of an electrical system degrades with time, environment condition, i.e., temperature, humidity, moisture and dust particles. It also gets impacted negatively due to the presence of electrical and mechanical stress, so it's become very necessary to check the IR (Insulation resistance) of equipment at a constant. Cable equation The insulation resistance of cable for a certain length can be calculated by the following formula: Where: RC = Insulation resistance in Megohms of cable K = Specific IR in Megohms - k ft at 60 F of insulation D = Outer diameter of insulation d = Outer diameter of bare copper wire L = Length of airfield cable in feet Value of K. Sheath Resistance testing is a key onsite diagnostic test for identifying potential cable faults. Commonly known as a Megger Test, it uses a Megohmmeter to measure the resistance of the cross-linked or thermoplastic compound to an applied DC voltage Example: Calculate the distributed capacitance and inductance, impedance and a cutoff frequency of a coaxial cable RG-58 with the following characteristics: inner conductor diameter 0.9 mm (0.035 in), outer conductor diameter 3.15 mm (0.124 in), type of insulation is polyethylene with the relative permittivity of 2.3 For materials commonly used for cable insulation, G is small enough that it can be neglected when compared with 2(3.1416) f C. At low frequencies, 2(3.1416) f L is so small compared with R that it can be neglected. Therefore, at low frequencies, the following equation can be used: Zo = sqrt ( R / (j * 2 * pi * f * C) 7. Insulation resistance: when the cable length is 100m and the ambient temperature is 75℃, shake the meter with 2,500VDC for 1 minute, the insulation resistance (between the lead and shield) is 1200MΩ; 8. Output power at 10℃: 20W/m; Self regulating heating cable Temperature characteristic

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