Artillery calculations

A simple artillery distance and azimuth calculator. Created by [11th]Guizm Foxhole Artillery Calculator Input. Artillery distance: Artillery azimute Quotes are not sourced from all markets and may be delayed up to 20 minutes. Information is provided 'as is' and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice

Foxhole Artillery Calculato

Gun laying is the process of aiming an artillery piece or turret, such as a gun, howitzer, or mortar, on land, in air, or at sea, against surface or aerial targets.It may be laying for direct fire, where the gun is aimed similarly to a rifle, or indirect fire, where firing data is calculated and applied to the sights.The term includes automated aiming using, for example, radar-derived target. UKART - Universal Artillery Calculator manufactured by the WB Group has received the Defender Award during the MSPO 2017 event. The system may be used to calculate firing solutions for any type of armament used by the rocket and artillery units of the land forces, and act as an alternative computational asset to be compared with Topaz In discussions of artillery fire, this phenomenon is called dispersion, and the array of bursts on the ground is called the dispersion pattern. 3-5. Causes of Dispersion . a. The points of impact of the projectiles will be scattered both in deflection and in range. Dispersion is caused by inherent (systemic) errors Not just any bum off the street could walk into a job that required precise calculations to load the proper amount of gunpowder and fire the cannon at the perfect angle to hit the intended target. While cannons were way too massive to carry into many fights, seeing the arrival of artillerymen meant that the U.S. Army meant business

The universal artillery calculator UKART-2 from WP Group was developed to calculate firing solutions for any type of armament used by the rocket and artillery units of land forces. The key component of the UKART-2 system is specialized software that runs alongside the FCS TOPAZ system. The UKART-2's main features include the preparation of. This allows a user to dispense with trigonometry and use simple ratios to determine size and distance with high accuracy for rifle and short distance artillery calculations by using the handy property of subtension: One mrad approximately subtends one meter at a distance of one thousand meters. More in detail, becaus Artillery Calculator is a simple calculator to get the coordinates (Distance and Azimuth) as a spotter, to help the artillery hit the target. This app can be used with several tabletop games and..

Artillery Calculato

How much higher should you aim if you are far from the target you want to hit? Watch me calculate it. Easy-to-remember and reliable low-tech approach. Works. Hello everyone Load your guns with He shell who has 150 mm or more some of players know about me im making some usefull stuff for war thunder like f-16 hud mod for war thunder and now im planing my new crazy idea let me tell about my little history im dutied in Turkish Armed Forces as Artillery g.. Armed with our distance to elevation calculator, we can now SHIFT + TAB when playing the game in Steam, click the Web Browser link at the bottom, and load up the calculator page to make elevations calculations quickly and accurately. This makes it possible to put artillery rounds on target with an accurate observation/fire support marker in. Our projectile motion calculator is a tool that helps you analyze the parabolic projectile motion. It can find the time of flight, but also the components of velocity, the range of the projectile, and the maximum height of flight.Continue reading if you want to understand what is projectile motion, get familiar with the projectile motion definition, and determine the abovementioned values.

From the Bottom Up It's all about grounded calculations.. ARtillery Intelligence follows disciplined best practices in market sizing and forecasting, developed and reinforced through its principles' 15 years in research and intelligence in the tech sector. This includes the past four years covering spatial computing as a main focus. Each market-sizing or forecasting deliverable is. HLL Artillery Calculator is an app that lets you convert distance (in meters) to elevation (in mils) for the artillery cannons (US & german) in the PC game Hell Let Loose An Implicit Three-Dimensional Meteorological Message for Artillery Trajectory Calculation . by Patrick A. Haines, David J. Epler II, James L. Cogan, Sean G. O'Brien A Artillery Calculator for the Foxhole Game. This Calculator will assist you in accuratly guiding Artillery Barages in Foxhole. Reason. Guiding Artillery Barrages can be a challenging endeavour even if you are a skilled Player. Without a calculator, you have to guess Heading and Distance Information if you cannot see the Enemy from your.

Artillery calculator. By pastuh. 99% of players can't understand how to use artillery and requires additional player to provide that information. This 'tool' can help to find required distance and angle if you play solo. 2. 1 . Award. Favorite. Favorited. Unfavorite. Share. Created by. pastuh Online. The system may be used to calculate firing solutions for any type of armament used by the rocket and artillery units of the Polish armed forces, ensuring precise ballistic calculations. The system enables the imprementation of ballistic tables (electronic version) for different types of artillery shooting projectiles (Prepared and published by direction of the Chief of Field Artillery.) Field Artillery Central Officers' Training School, Camp Zachary Taylor, Kentucky (Instruction Memo. No. 20).Louisville, Kentucky (Courier Journal Press, 1919). 72 pages. The following review by Albert A Bennett, University of Texas, is interesting both in its own right and also for what it tells us of Ford's course Artillery Calculation from Years Past. This seems appropriate for Memorial Day. I came across a canvas bag of sticks the other day, and realized it was something my fathergave me a while back that I'd completely forgotten. He was an artillery man, from many years back The Diagram Group. Artillery. Weapons An International Encyclopedia from 5000 BC To 2000 AD Updated Edition. New York: Diagram Visual, 1980. Copperhead, the first of its kind has been in the US artillery service since 1980, its range is 10 miles (16 km). 16,000 m: Wendel, Svante. Svante Wendel's Unofficial Swedish Army Page

Foxhole Artillery Calculator - Google Sheet

ARTILLERY TRENDS is a publication of the United States Army The ideal situation for calculation of absolute VE requires a meteorological message taken concurrently with the calibration firing SquadMC - The map-based mortar calculator for Squad. Change Log. 2.14.0 (2020-12-27) Features. implemented vue-router for maps (by ekzyis) 2.13.2 (2020-10-09) Bug Fixes. added Netlify badge to navigation drawer ; 2.13.1 (2020-08-29) Bug Fixes. Added cache-control immutable header (by Trikolon). In March 1982, the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (VCSA) established the Standards in Training Commision (STRAC), appointing the Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, G-3, as Chairman and U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), Army Training Support Center (ATSC) as the Army Executive Agent

How does artillery crew calculate target? - Quor

Use this calculator to determine the most efficient combination of Artillery and Barrages to accomplish your bombardment goals in an attack. Modes Damage Needed: This mode takes the amount of damage that you wish to deal to your target building and determines the number of Artillery and Barrages that will deal atleast that much damage for the. HLL Artillery Calculator is an app that lets you convert distance (in meters) to elevation (in mils) for the artillery cannons (US & german) in the PC game Hell Let Loose.Its features are:* Distance to elevation conversion* List view (consecutively saves up to five last converted values)* Dark modeTested in Hell Let Loose game v1.4.614685 (funcionality may vary for other versions)Please. *ATP 3-09.23. Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 3-09.21, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures For The Field Artillery Battalio (i) battery survey and change of grid calculations; The artillery program requires 48 kbytes of EPROM and 8 kbytes of RAM for the M2A2 gun system. Calculation time (including crest clearance factors) is less than five seconds, once mission data is entered. The program, as described, provides a demonstration of artillery fire contro

Firing time against a previous target, or near a previous target, was faster as they kept their previous calculations. If the Germans had time to prepare they pre-plotted (registered) firing points so that effective fire could be quickly delivered as needed. The Development of Artillery Techniques by 2 NZ Divisional Artillery of World. Artillery free download - Scorched3D, Artillery, Best Artillery, and many more programs. HLL Artillery Calculator is an app that lets you convert distance (in meters) to elevation (in mils. The Field Artillery is a vehicle with a heavy gun carriage that boasts incredible firepower. Serves to engage the enemy at a distance and destroy fortifications. It requires 120mm Shells as ammunition. It fires its shells in an arc. The range of the artillery piece is 75 meters (min) - 250 meters (max). The range can be adjusted with the mouse wheel. At an elevated height, the artillery piece. Calculate a stability factor for a bullet using the Miller stability formula. Output is red for unstable, yellow for marginal stability and green for stable. Explanation of terms. Caliber (0.100 to 2.000 in) [0.308] Bullet Weight (5.0 to 15000.0 gr) [220.0] Bullet Length (0. The fastest way I've found is to use the Hell let loose Advanced Artillery Calculator on phone. If I use this calculator, I can just tell the gunner what degree they should turn to. I don't need to yell stop, or move right, left etc. They know where they need to turn, and all I need to focus on is the elevation

Artillery Calculator - HLLT

Chapter 11. Field Artillery Chapter 12. Tank/Fighting Vehicle Gunnery Chapter 13. Aviation Gunnery Chapter 14. Air Defense Artillery Weapon Systems Chapter 15. Antitank Guided Missiles Chapter 16. Chemical Agents and Smokes Chapter 17. Mines, Firing Devices, Trip Flares, Simulators, and Explosive Charges Chapter 18. Laser Range Safety Chapter 19 Kurt Pannke, Delostrelecké pocitadlo denních vlivu [artillery calculator], Czech Patent 24349, Feb. 25, 1928. It is unclear if this is part of the 50 kg T4 device mentioned in The Field Artillery Journal, Nov-Dec 1931. At the end of the First World War, Pannke designed an Artillerie-Plan-Rechenmaschine for Mercedes Büromaschinen.

Hell Let Loose Calculato

*ATP 3-09.50 THE FIELD ARTILLERY CANNON BATTERY MAY 2016. DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. * This publication supersedes ATP 3-09.50/MCWP 3-1.6.23, dated 07 July 2015 Artillery is the first weapon of your Gunboat. It is unlocked right at the start of your game. Artillery deals splash damage. Artillery can harm nearby troops. Artillery can be used to trigger Mines, Boom Mines, and Shock Mines. Each shot costs 2 more Gunboat Energy than the previous, with a starting cost of 3 Gunboat Energy. Offensive Strateg Artillery. By the late 18th century, artillerymen were considered elite troops. In an age of widespread illiteracy, soldiers who could do the geometric calculations necessary to place a cannonball on target must have seemed almost as wizards. Indeed, even though for centuries it was known that the flight path of spears and arrows was parabolic. Artillery Requirements: Altitude separation missions are coordinated by a time to target (TTT), sometimes called a time hack, or time on target (TOT). The first fire for effect (FFE) volley must.

Fire Control Calculator - Misc and utilities - Armaholi

  1. So artillery starts with 0 attack value. If I remember the combat formula, it takes off tech adjustments (not relevant in this case) and then everything in it is multiplicative and nothing else is additive
  2. e the distance and azimuth to the target location. Without moving, have the spotter deter
  3. According to him, an artillery system shot sends a sound wave through the ground that can be felt kilometers away. 'Penicillin' receives this signal and is able to make all the calculations to.
  4. ARtillery Intelligence has no financial stake in the companies mentioned in this report, nor received payment for its production. With respect to market sizing, ARtillery Intelligence remains independent of players and practitioners in the sectors it covers, thus mitigating bias in industry revenue calculations and projections

Supervises maintenance of field artillery radar system equipment and components. Plans, organizes, implements, monitors, and evaluates operations, threat environment, unit maintenance, and intermediate level support maintenance of field artillery radar systems; provides advice on technical and tactical employment of field artillery radar systems; supervises maintenance of field artillery radar. In the attack, self-propelled artillery such as the SU-122 and SU-152 are used heavily for direct-fire artillery support. 120mm and 82mm mortars have roughly the same effects and burst radii as 122mm howitzers and 76mm guns, respectively

Ballistic Trajectory (2-D) Calculator - Computes the

Gun laying - Wikipedi

  1. This is a simple program that calculates firing data to aid you when in-game artillery computer is disabled. It works independent from Arma 3 (not an addon). Features: • Support for the 3 vanilla artillery weapons: Howitzer, Mortar and MLRS • Calculation of firing mode, cannon elevation angle, and bearing at which to shoot Installation
  2. Artillery is a Node.js package designed for testing backend systems, such as APIs. Out of the box, it supports your standard HTTP APIs, along with protocols like WebSockets. It also integrates with the Socket.io library for Node.js applications. Artillery also sports a plugin interface to extend its functionality
  3. HLL Artillery Calculator tricks hints guides reviews promo codes easter eggs and more for android application. Avoid HLL Artillery Calculator hack cheats for your own safety, choose our tips and advices confirmed by pro players, testers and users like you. Ask a question or add answers, watch video tutorials & submit own opinion about this game/app
  4. Eagle Artillery is a powerful splash damage defensive building with a huge range, capable of targeting enemy troops in the entire village. Unlocked on Town Hall 11, it was added to the game in 2015 with this new Town Hall level
  5. Hotline. Do you need help? Ask our Experts! Sizing of shock absorbers and gas springs requires Know-How and experience. Ask ACE. We want to help. 1-800-521-332
  6. William Liles answer provides a good explanation of site, which is simply the difference in vertical interval between the position of the guns and the location of the target. Depending on the range and the charge used (amount of propellant), the.

UKART 2 - Universal Artillery Calculator by WB Group

The E6B calculator verses iPad and smartphone E6B apps

The calculation of the final values ranges from simple Addition (Summation), Averages, and Worst to it is complicated (Armor and Piercing). For example, a Marine combat battalion adds +30% Breakthrough to its infantry equipment while an artillery support company has a -40% Soft Attack, -40% Hard Attack, -40% Defense, and -40% Breakthrough. An artillery fuze or artillery fuse is the type of munition fuze used with artillery munitions, typically projectiles fired by guns (field, anti-aircraft, coast and naval), howitzers and mortars. A fuze is a device that initiates an explosive function in a munition, most commonly causing it to detonate or release its contents, when its activation conditions are met. This action typically. Calculations of sunrise and sunset in Washington Artillery Park - Louisiana - USA for April 2021. Generic astronomy calculator to calculate times for sunrise, sunset, moonrise, moonset for many cities, with daylight saving time and time zones taken in account

Input (8 digit grid / meters) X Y X (range) Z (altitude); Battery: Target: Rang Example Calculations Shown in the table below are a few sample calculations of both Projectile Velocity and Barrel Pressure for the 9mm, .357 magnum, .44 magnum, .45 ACP, .223 / 5.56 NATO, .308 / 7.62 NATO, and .50 caliber BMG using CFR's derived method. The Pressure value used for each caliber happens to be the maximum SAAMI safe chamber pressure If you fire a projectile at an angle, you can use physics to calculate how far it will travel. When you calculate projectile motion, you need to separate out the horizontal and vertical components of the motion. This is because the force of gravity only acts on the projectile in the vertical direction, and the [ An artillery piece is a firearm just as a rifle only much, much bigger. The barrel gives the projectile its direction. After the projectile has left the barrel, it flies to the target unguided. Today however there are also smart guidable projectiles. The effect of a projectile on its target is determined by the kinetic energy of the.

From the early 1950s the US began developing nuclear artillery. The first was the Honest John missile with a range of 15 miles and a W7 nuclear warhead with a yield of 20 kilotons. There was also the M65 Atomic Cannon delivering 280mm nuclear shells with yields of 15 to 20 kilotons. Both date fro ARTILLERY TERMS: ARTY: 'Artillery'. AIRBURST: Explosion in the air, used with Shell-HE to increase the anti-personnel effect of shrapnel thrown off by the explosion, or with Shell-SMOKE to provide a visible 'marking round' in the air above a designated point. BATTERY: The primary artillery unit, consisting of 3-6 cannon of a single caliber Artillery's growing complexity and sophistication attracted the attention of some of the most talented scientists, mathematicians, and engineers of the period. The English engineer and mathematician Benjamin Robins (1707-1751) published New Principles of Gunnery in 1742 and conducted experiments concerning the calculation of muzzle velocities

Enter the M503 command, then press enter. Look for the line starting with M92. Add the E value in the calculator, then move to the next step.. 3. Measure 200 mm of filament. Carefully straighten the filament and measure 200 mm from a fixed position The study of the flight of a baseball and the bend of a soccer kick are excellent ways for students to learn the basics of forces and the response of an object to external forces. A ball in flight has no engine to produce thrust, so the resulting flight is similar to the flight of shell from a cannon, or a bullet from a gun.This type of flight is called ballistic flight and assumes that. Linear Interpolation Equation Calculator Engineering - Interpolator Formula. To interpolate the y 2 value: x 1, x 3, y 1 and y 3 need to be entered/copied from the table. x 2 defines the point to perform the interpolation. y 2 is the interpolated value and solution. x 1: y 1: x 2: y 2: x 3: y 3: Solving for y 2. Inputs: x 1. unitless. x 2. As far as the guns themselves they are more accurate. A lot of the Field Artillery in WWII used short barreled howitzers. In the heavy artillery you had the huge M1 in 240mm, 8″, and 155mm which were classified as guns because of the longer barrel..

Field Artillery Manual Cannon Gunner

But the calculation assumes that the gravity acceleration is the surface value g = 9.8 m/s 2, so if the height is great enough for gravity to have changed significantly the results will be incorrect. Free fall with air friction: Free fall from great height: Free fall experiment with spark timer: Inde In damage calculation, Post-cap modifiers apply after the cap, but before enemy armor reduction. Thus they are very effective approach to boost your damage output (esp. against heavy armor enemies). Currently, the post-cap modifiers are from: Artillery Spotting (aka. Day time special attacks) Critical Damage and Aircraft Proficienc

Longer range artillery takes into account air Temperature & humidity, to compensate for powder burn rate differences and air drag on the shell, and even the rotation of the earth due to long flight times. and powder charge. Other calculations are done to come up with different firing solutions for guns in various locations to all obtain the. This is an original Soviet Army Artillery Firing Calculator, used in determining proper elevation and deflection (direction) when operating field artillery weapons. It was carried in the map/document case worn by a Soviet artillery officer. The calculator contains diagrams and a graph, with rotating wheels and tabs, and made of material which.

Predicted fire - Wikipedia

Why artillerymen should bring back their distinctive

Artillery games are among the earliest computer games developed; the theme of such games is an extension of the original uses of computer themselves, which were once used to calculate the trajectories of rockets and other related military-based calculations. [citation needed] Artillery games have been described as a type of shooting game. Artillery electronic goniometer (AEG) is comprised of following subsystems: - electronic goniometer, and target data necessary ballistic calculations will be performed for every gun. Firing instructions are then sent to selected guns, where they will be displayed on ruggedized computer. Initial firing elements calculation also takes into. This is another condition that affects calculations of ballistic artillery firing. The profile is used to compute virtual temperatures for artillery firing. Extreme cold affects gun accuracy and.

Supporting 'Our Boys': How The Royal Artillery Became A

Artillery are weapons that fire large ammunition or missiles to support infantry and tank units in combat. The Fire Support Specialist is primarily responsible for intelligence activities such as target processing, using computers or manual calculations, laser range finders and night observation devices to determine target location 0844 --Field Artillery Fire Control Marine - Life or death coordination calculations are done with the Fire Control Marines. They will determine target coordinates, as well as the conversion to target coordinates and observer's reports into firing data and commands The threat imposed by terrorist attacks is a major hazard for military installations, for example, in Iraq and Afghanistan. The large amounts of rockets, artillery projectiles, and mortar grenades (RAM) that are available pose serious threats to military forces. An important task for international research and development is to protect military installations and implement an accurate early. artillery fungus identification The fruiting bodies of artillery fungi look like small, cream-colored or orange-brown cups that are about 1/10 of an inch in diameter. There is a single black egg in the cup, which is actually a sticky mass of spores

Universal artillery calculator for land forces - Military

  1. e the linear interpolated values of a set of data points within fractions of seconds
  2. At the same time, mobile artillery such as the U.S. M777 is perhaps much better suited to support advancing Infantry Brigade Combat Teams in many warfare scenarios, as it could much more easily.
  3. 5/12/20 - This is an authentic, exceptionally well-made, near perfectly preserved WW2 German Army Artillery Calculator. The calculator itself is Eagle 538 waffenamt and has a cme makers mark. The top flap of the black leather case is marked..
  4. Artillery training, due to the logistics involved, is a cumbersome process. But this simulator cuts down logistics while ensuring ready-for-battle standards. A wide range of terrains has been provided to recreate the scenarios expected to be faced by trainees in actual war. It also enables trainees to shoot the gun applying different procedures
  5. The 1/92nd Field Artillery Association - Vietnam. Back to 'The Gun' FDC Fire Direction Center: By Tom Kanis The FDC was a Section within the Firing Battery that computed solutions to fire missions and relayed the resultant commands to the Howitzer Sections.The Gunnery Problem that was solved was that the cannoneers manning the howitzers could not always see the target
  6. Skill Level: Effect Parameters: Lv 1: Increases power of each attack by 10% and reduces Wyvern's Fire cooldown by 15%. 1: 0: 0: 0: Lv 2: Increases power of each attack by 20% and reduces Wyvern's Fire cooldown by 30%

Milliradian - Wikipedi

Artillery - Guns and Howitzers. Modern advances in armament and technology continue to drive the development and application of combined arms doctrine. The integration of artillery assets into a unified fire support plan is a major task for the combined arms commander. A unit of fire is a logistical calculation for resupply of ammunition. Artillery is the generic name for either early two- or three-player (usually turn-based) computer games involving tanks fighting each other in combat or similar derivative games. Artillery games are among the earliest computer games developed; the theme of such games is an extension of the original uses of computer themselves, which were once used to calculate the trajectories of rockets and.

Artillery Calculator - Apps on Google Pla

I was wondering if someone could help me out with trying to calculate certain unknowns when computing the trajectory of a mortar round. I think the solution to the problem involves some sort of re-arrangement of the kinematic equations required to solve trajectory problems where you are provided with an initial velocity and an angle Germany Turns to Heavy Artillery. All artillery manuals contain dispersion tables that provide mathematical calculations of the predicted fall pattern of shells. Dispersion is caused by. The artillery ammunition program includes fuzes for cargo-carrying projectiles, such as smoke and illumination, and bursting projectiles, such as High Explosives (HE). This program also includes bag propellant for the 105 mm semifixed cartridges and a modular artillery charge system for 155 mm Howitzers i'm having some problems with trajectory calculations as well. i'm trying to send a projectile with constant velocity through the point at which i click the mouse Trajectory calculation . At the time of World War II intelligent bombs were not yet developed, so ground based artillery was used to attack the enemy. Depending on the distance of the target and the type of artillery, the bullet has to be shoot in a certain angle. This angle also is related to the weather, especially to the wind

The Eagle Artillery has nearly unlimited range and targets tough enemies with exploding shells. However, it won't activate until a large amount of troops have been deployed. Summary The Eagle Artillery is a very powerful defense that has a range that covers almost the entire map but has a blind spot similar to the Mortar, the Multi Mortar, the Lava Launcher, and the Scattershot. It is. Artillery units ( ) are the class of military units with long attack range. Up until the Progressive Era, they are usually the last unit unlocked in an age and have the lowest attack, defense, and speed out of all same-age units, but the longest attacking range. Their low attack makes them rather ineffective against light and fast units from the age, and only moderately effective against heavy. By 1943, the Royal Artillery could muster more than 200 field and medium regiments (battalions) with an average of 700 men per regiment. We should, however, not forget that the Royal Artillery also organised a large number of anti-aircraft and anti-tank regiments as well as coastal artillery and artillery for merchant ships Artillery Genius 3D Printer, 2020 Newest Ultra-Quiet High-Precision Dual Z-Axis 98% Integrity TFT Screen Filament Runout Sensor & Power Failure Recovery 3D Printing, 220 x 220 x 250 mm 4.4 out of 5 stars 2

2412 Artillery Dr , Chalmette, LA 70043-4304 is a single-family home listed for-sale at $265,000. The 1,571 sq. ft. home is a 3 bed, 2.0 bath property. Find 16 photos of the 2412 Artillery Dr home on Zillow. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. MLS # 229562 HLL Artillery Calculator is an app that lets you convert distance (in meters) to elevation (in mils) for the artillery cannons (US german) in the PC game Hell Let Loose. Its features are: * Distance to elevation conversion * List view (consecutively saves up to five last converted values) * Dark mod Despite the conditions, the artillery unit's mission is still the same, deliver fire support from their M119 and M777 howitzers. The FDC does the calculations and sends it to the gunline.

Artillery calculations! : HellLetLoos

  1. English: Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. The term also describes ground-based troops with the primary function of manning such weapons
  2. d, you have a set level for each campaign such as the Battle of Moscow or Battle of Normandy
  3. 100 Artillery Ln , Raleigh, NC 27615-1507 is currently not for sale. The 2,945 sq. ft. single-family home is a 3 bed, 3.0 bath property. This home was built in 1979 and last sold on 5/3/2021 for $579,900. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow
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